till, it has been noted that the problem is not inherently linked to the political process and could be linked to disconnect between the citizens’ needs and the country’s policies. Gewald et al (2012: p29) emphasize the critical link between political participation and education, especially noting that education is essential to the social, economic, and political development of Zambia. Zambia’s Ministry of Education has since the early 90s been determined enhance access and quality of education in accordance to the societies needs (Sardanis, 2014: p21). This paper will seek to discuss the effects of underdevelopment on the provision of education in Zambia, while also evaluating the impact of policies, practices, and projects on schooling in Zambia. First, an overview of Zambia’s current economic development and political situation will be given.
Zambia’s economy is heavily reliant on the mining industry, specifically copper mining. However, the costs of production continues to rise as copper reserves are depleted, while income is unstable due to copper prices on the world market, which has been identified as a reason why Zambia should diversify its economic base (Baldini & IMF, 2012: p35). The agricultural industry is poorly developed, while major investments both public and foreign in the manufacturing industry only took place following the country’s independence from Britain. Involvement of the state in almost every economic aspect has led to a highly bureaucratic and centralized economic structure. In real terms, economic growth in 2013 in Zambia declined by 6.5%, particularly because of a fall in output of cotton and maize that makes up most of the country’s economic output (Baldini & IMF, 2012: p35). Largely, real GDP growth is driven by the public, transportation, construction, communications, mining, and manufacturing sector. Copper contributes to at least 70% of Zambia’s export earnings, although non-traditional exports like agriculture ...Show more