Research shows that education is a long prescription and a short on description and this statement holds true for literacy instructions given for English language learners or students who use English as a second language (ESL). ESL students will represent a wide range of cultures and language skills and are the easiest to take note of in schools as they are enter into classrooms without knowing how to have a conversation with other students in English. These students will remain silent in class as they are trying to adjust in the new environment and culture and this silent period presents a time of great discomfort for the students as they feel as if they do not belong. Teachers working with these students will require theories and conceptual models and frameworks that are aimed at ensuring that the students easily adapt in the new environment and that their learning goes on smoothly without language barriers affecting their success in education (Jimenez and Gersten, 1994). Teachers will require to incorporate comprehensive input, cognitive academic language proficiency and the natural language approach in the effort of making ESL students learn without language barriers interfering with their success. Research reveals that there needs to be a considerable amount of guidance and innovative ideas that will enable ESL students to adapt in the new environment and learn English, and this will make the classroom conducive for learning. (Jimenez and Gersten, 1994). Teachers are required to enhance the approach they use to educate ESL students so as to make their classrooms conducive for the great numbers of ESL students. There is a general increase in the number of ESL students in the United States classrooms, and this means that there are cases when teachers without training on how to teach them attend to these students. Teachers can be asked to teach students of Non-English backgrounds , and this presents a milestone as the students may not be able to read and write well in their native language or in English hence the need for special attention and programs aimed at improving the literacy learning skills (Jimenez and Gersten, 1994). Thus, teachers are faced with the task of building literacy, develop writing expression ability and enhance the growth of the English language for the student at the same time. This is extremely challenging for teachers, and even the most experienced ones may have problems in simultaneously building these capabilities. Factors Affecting Second Language Acquisition There are various factors that will affect students’ ability to acquire a second language despite the fact that students will have varying patterns, speed and acquiring styles. Some students will easily take off and become quickly conversant without much effort and for others this will present a huge challenge. Some students will continue to struggle with learning English despite being engaged in constant and lengthy periods of being exposed to the language being learnt (English). Learner characteristics or personal traits affect the ESL students in their effort to acquire literal efficiency. These are the characteristics that are specific to an individual and they will include attitude, motivation, personality, learning styles and attitudes. Research shows that self confident students and those that have sociable personalities will have the courage to attempt verbal communication with other students and these interactions will make them to adapt easily to the new environment (Reid, 2002). Learner characteristics will affect how the student responds to instructions, which will influence the student’s ability to learn. Situational or environmental factors are concerned with issues that are external to the
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Students of English as a second language require special attention when it comes to being given instructions as they may be at the same level of comprehending English as students who use English as their first language…
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