Intellectual Disabilities Name of Institution Date Intellectual Disabilities Introduction Globally, people are endowed with varying abilities. They also develop at varying rate. However, there are also people who find it hard to learn new knowledge or skills maybe because they suffer from intellectual disability (Woodcock & Vialle, 2010)…
Moreover, intellectual disabilities affect individuals during aging. Understanding intellectual disability is critical in education to help students having this condition (Woodcock & Vialle, 2010). This paper will discuss the definition of intellectual, its characteristics and its impacts on intellectual functioning and adaptive behavior. Moreover, strategies to assist students in this disability category will be described. Defining Intellectual Disability World Health Organization describes intellectual disability as the significant reduction of the ability to comprehend new information and in learning and applying new skills. The American Association of Intellectual and Development Disability (AAIDD) explain that intellectual disability is not usually an isolated disorder. AAIDD offers a three dimensional definition of intellectual disability and this is the most widely acknowledged definition (Barrett, 2011). According to the AAIDD, intellectual disability is a disorder that begins before one gets to the age of 18 years that is characterized by great limitation in intellectual functioning and adaptive behavior. Intellectual functioning refers to various aspects of life such as learning, reasoning, problem solving (Barrett, 2011). On the other hand, adaptive behavior touches on a range of practical and social skills in areas of self-care, communication, self-direction, health, safety leisure and work. Intellectual disability has been introduced as a replacement to mental retardation that was previously used (Jellinek, Patel & Froehle, 2002). The prevalence of intellectual disability in America is relatively high with about one in every ten families affected. However, the estimated prevalence varies based on the criteria used in diagnosis, study design and ways of ascertaining (Barrett, 2011). For instance, when intelligent quotient (IQ) is used in diagnosis, the prevalence of intellectual disability is estimated at 3 percent but when applying the AAIDD definition, national prevalence stand at 1 percent. Prevalence of intellectual disability is higher among males and the male to female ration is about 1.5 to 1 (Barrett, 2011). Diagnosis and Assessment of ID Assessment of intellectual disability involves a multidisciplinary team comprising of psychiatrists, pediatricians, psychologists and clinical geneticists. The assessment is usually comprehensive where intellectual ability, adaptive behavior and medical and family history of the patient is assessed (Garbutt, 2010). DSM-IV-TR offers standardized criteria used in the diagnosis of the disorder and this is used among children and adults. Intellectual is characterized by below average intellectual functioning. The characteristics of intellectual disability include the fact that disorder begins before the age of 18. DSM-IV-TR requires that all the symptoms of intellectual disability must have begun before the age of 18 (Garbutt, 2010). However, this does not limit diagnosis after 18 years. Nevertheless, children who have not reached the age of two years should not be subjected to intellectual disability diagnosis. This may however be conducted in case a child demonstrates severe symptoms related to intellectual disability for instance Down syndrome (Garbutt, 2010). The other characteristic of intellectual disability is poor adaptive functioning. Adaptive functioning is described as the effectiveness of an individual to functioning in tandem with ...
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(2012) reviewed advances in genetic research, which helped explain how genetic analysis technologies facilitated the swift detection of chromosomal and single-gene sources of intellectual disability and autism. These researchers concentrated on copy-number changes that cause intellectual disability and autism and are normally not present for control cohorts.
For most of the students, the learning difficulties remain lifelong challenges, although some develop compensatory skill sets or effective coping strategies. Technology can be a fundamental factor for some students in altering learning disability into a learning difference.
God taught Adam certain principles needed to be observed in his life; however, Adam failed to learn these principles properly and committed the first sin. Adam failed to obey the instructions of God because of his inability in understanding the instructions of God properly even though he was an able human in all the other respects.
Visibly, research in this domain has focused principally on children with minimal intellectual capability. This research has culminated in the creation of a programme that assists in management of pupils with such disabilities. Consequently, intellectually challenged students are in a program aimed at managing their inabilities proactively (Scott, 2011).
The overall level of intelligence is affected though cognitive, language, motor and socialization functions. Although almost 40% to 50% of the causes of intellectual disability is not known, the few known cases can be grouped into four categories (American Psychiatric Association, 2000).
The constantly renewing technologies are also having an impact on those people who were formally marginalized because of their physical or mental circumstances. For instance, people who are blind are now enabled to read using text-to-speech technology; deaf individuals gain the capability to communicate using chat programs; and people who are disabled from the use of their hands or arms particularly in communicating and writing are now using dictation software (Fichten, et al.
Some data is presented to give a general idea of the prevalence of intellectual disabilities. Then an attempt is made to show how intellectual disabilities are assessed and classified in children. The causes of
A research conducted among 651 learning disabled adults residing in the United Kingdom and Scotland found that one of the leading symptoms in such people was aggression. Such disability triggered aggression in adults (Cooper et al. 2009). In
The author states that increased emphasis towards upholding the rights of individuals with intellectual disabilities has been observed over the recent few decades through espousing of changes in ideology and service delivery. A shift to person-centered ideologies has allowed for the identification of the right to establish intimate relationships.
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