The curriculum is the educational processes that occur from the time one starts school up to the time of completion. It consists of planned sequence of instructions in terms of the school’s instructional goals. A good curriculum should not only affect day-to-day school practice but also ensure that whatever children and youth study would relate directly to their ability to function in their future adult roles. The curriculum embodies what is to be taught, and teaching refers to those actions that a teacher takes in order to implement the curriculum. The curriculum is based on the basic building blocks that are called subjects. For most of the nineteenth century, the curriculum as the object of professional concern in the United States consisted largely of discussion of the benefits presumably derived from the subjects, including, here and there, some disagreement as to the respective value of the subjects to be taught (kliebard, 2002). A curriculum is a useful device for creating and maintaining bureaucratic control.
In 1950s, many countries were influenced by Anglo-American curriculum and educational theory; they accepted the assumptions of behaviorism. These assumptions included the analysis of subjects into concrete objectives for teaching purposes (Spring, 2012). A number of curriculum projects, in particular in science and mathematics, were developed by subject specialists most of which focused on subject content rather than pedagogy. In 1980s, the curriculum became more child-centered, and constructivism began to replace behaviorism as the underpinning learning theory. Active learning provides the most appropriate vehicle for the attainment of the types of objectives relevant to civic, social and political education, and for the consequent development of active citizens. The current situation in United States allows the state and national governments distribute power over public education amongst ...Show more