Information Processing Theory Name Institution Course Information Processing Theory The information processing theory seeks to explain the complex processes involved in the input and output of information in the brain. The brain has multiple cognitive processes that come into place in receiving and processing stimuli to produce a response…
This paper will highlight the theory and model and analyze how its application in understanding the issues of children with special needs. For the brain to perform any of its functions, it adopts a logical order of processing information. The information processing theory is analogous to the functioning of a computer. The theory touches on three parts of the brain. These include the sensory memory that receives all sensory input. The short memory actively processes the perceived stimuli through several cognitive processes. The aspects of pattern recognition and attention come in closely to help the short memory process the stimuli. After processing, other complex procedures transfer the information to the long-term memory. Retrieval often occurs from the long-term memory. Information in the short-term memory is accessible for limited amounts of time and often undergoes decay after time elapses. In the social context, Crick and Dodge constructed a model that highlights the stepwise manner in which the human mind processes social cues from the point of reception to the production of response. In this model, it becomes clear that the brain does not respond to stimuli without processing. On the contrary, several steps are necessary for the human brain to produce a relevant response (Flood, Hare, and Wallis, 2011). In the initial stages of the social information processing, the brain indulges actively in the encoding and making interpretations out of cues from the social context or internal sources. The interpretation process includes analysis of causes, consideration of both self and inferences from others, goal assessment and past performance evaluation. In the next step, the brain employs several mechanisms in order to clarify the goal of the process. After attaining clarity on the social goals expected, the brain then indulges in mechanisms that result to relevant strategies aimed at producing effective response. Memories, social norms, and familiarity of the situation play a crucial role in determining the strategies adopted. The brain then analyzes the resulting response critically according to moral values, societal expectations, and assessing the potential reaction from the others. Lastly, the human mind weighs its capacity to enact the final response. In the end, selection of the best response and the associated behavioral code occurs (Flood, Hare, and Wallis, 2011). Children with special needs portray deficiencies in the social information processing. An illustration is the case of children with Asperger syndrome who portray a range of disabilities in the processes described in the Crick and Dodge model. Previous research suggests that children with this syndrome presented difficulties in attribution of their intents, generation of appropriate responses and evaluation of the relevance of the response (Flood, Hare, and Wallis, 2011). It becomes essential for special needs teachers to understand the difficulties of children suffering from this syndrome in order to help them improve in the processing of social effectively. Tur-Kaspa (2004) used the same social information-processing model to assess the learning disabilities ...
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