Spitzer also did a similar test that proved that Gates’ reciting was a form of a self-test that ensured good results.
A further experiment on the importance of pretests was done by Bjork who suggested that the test force some kind of thinking into the brain that would not have been easy to get without the test at first. With a test, the fluency of the mind is improved and one tends to get the right answers.
A biological explanation has been given that tries to distinguish remembering and learning. The latter is harder as there are various sets of information that need to be associated. Pretesting assists in bringing about the associations. Pretesting, however, applies where one has familiar concepts and cannot take place in a languages ...Show more