13). Many studies have determined the existence of a strong relationship between a child’s ability to read and the length of time the child spends reading (Armbruster, et al., n.d., p. 22). This evidence has long encouraged the teachers to promote the practice of voluntary reading in the classroom. Teachers need to hear, guide, and supervise the children as they read because there is no research evidence to support the improvement of reading fluency in children through independent, silent reading with minimal feedback and guidance from the teachers (Armbruster, et al., n.d., p. 22). Most students need nearly two years of phonics instruction. Starting phonics instruction early during kindergarten helps the teachers complete it near the first grade’s end. Accordingly, starting it early in the first grade implies that it should be completed at the second grade’s end (Armbruster, et al., n.d., p. 17). Evidence-based practice implies that teachers should use both print sources and firsthand experiences to enhance learning (Spencer and Guillaume, 2006, p. 208).
Language and vocabulary are both of paramount importance for a child to learn to read. Children draw connection between the words they see in the text and the words they have heard and are stored in their memories to make sense of what they are reading. Vocabulary also plays an important role in reading comprehension. Children find it hard to understand what they read without knowing the meanings of the words they read. Teachers should try to make the children memorize meanings of new words as the class proceeds towards reading more advanced texts. “While a substantial amount of general vocabulary is acquired through wide reading, it is also important for teachers to address word learning directly” (Richek, 2005, p. 414). Scientific research on vocabulary instruction shows that for the most part, vocabulary learning is an indirect process, and that teachers must ...Show more