The maltreatment may involve physical and emotional abuse, experiencing domestic violence, sexual harassment, or abandonment that exposes children to significant physical or emotional stress. Ideally, the frequency and severity of the maltreatment, age of child, and the relationship between the child and the offender defines the social and academic effect of the maltreatment on the child (Australian Institute of Family Studies, 2014). The maltreatment can cause trauma that jeopardizes brain development and hinders attachment and interpersonal relationships between the caregiver and the child thus affecting the childrens social life (Australian Institute of Family Studies, 2014). Maltreatment leads to learning and cognitive problems that fosters poor academic achievement among the victimized children since it also affects the areas of speech and language (Australian Institute of Family Studies, 2014). Maltreatment also leads to numerous mental health problems like depression, post-traumatic stress disorder, and anxiety that have adverse effects on childrens social life. Such children cannot establish and maintain positive relationships with caregivers or other children since they develop behavioral problems. Children that are subject to maltreatment can also inflict pain on others and develop aggressive and violent behaviors that limit their social life (Australian Institute of Family Studies, 2014).
Single parent families also effects childrens social and academic life. Single parent families involve families led solely by either a man or woman. However, most single parent families are single-mother families. Apparently, children in single parent families experience less parental supervision compared to children in two-parent households, which leads to significant social and academic effects (Yarber & Sharp, 2010). Single parents depict less involvement in monitoring their children’s social and school activities. As a result, such