This is the theory of learning that focuses on things that can be seen and does not put into account any mental activities. It is only concerned with learned behavior whether it is through experience or through watching. Proponents of this theory believe that people can learn more from external stimuli than if they are actively involved in the process. Learning is acquiring new behavior and behaviorists describe this as conditioning. There are two types of conditioning that explain the reason as to why both human beings and animals are taught or learn to do certain things. The first type is classical conditioning where there is a reinforcement of a natural reflex or another type of behavior that happens as a result of exposure to a stimulus. Operant conditioning, on the other hand, is the reinforcement of behavior by rewarding it. Every time a particular behavior is practiced, the participant is given a reward. Operant conditioning is the most important type of behaviorist learning and is seen as more powerful than classical conditioning. Just as the way positive behavior is reinforced, so is negative behavior. Negative behavior is discouraged by immediate punishment. For instance, the monkeys that were kept in a cage and every time they tried to reach out for the banana, they were electrocuted. With time, they all restrained from reaching out for the banana no matter how enticing it was.
Humanists focus mostly on human beings and emphasize on issues of personal choice, creativity, and spontaneity of an individual. ...Show more