6. From Integration to Inclusion
7. The process of inclusion
8. Responding to the Difference
10. List of references.
In this essay I will be examining the difference between integration and inclusion related to special education needs provision in the UK. I will start with a brief introduction of its history and developments and end with the discussion itself.
History of Special education needs
The history of special needs dates back decades ago, but the documented cases were evident in the beginning of the 20th century where ideas about the provision of education for children with special needs were based on a medical model of ‘defects’. This model was mainly focused on difference rather than nor¬mality, on illness rather than well being, and particularly on the ‘problem’ with the child (Lewis, 1999). Deficit rather than potential was used to categorize children with various needs. Therefore, the special education needs began with the establishment of separate special schools for children with special needs and required an extra care.
The educational reforms of 1944
In 1944, significant educational reforms were developed; most of them were targeted to cater the educational need of each and every child. This educational act also addressed the needs and requirements that were thought essential to fulfill the emerging need for special education. However, this pact had some drawbacks associated with it such as it did not liberate the needs of those with special needs as it did for the normal children. It still used the medical model of disability where deficit rather than potential was used. Special schools were still seen as the most appropriate option for those with special needs to educate such children. The 1944 act still referred to children who ‘suffered from a disability of mind or body’, and so clearly focused on special schools’ as catering the educational need for ‘handicapped’ children. Education through the 1960s and 70s In the 1960s and 70s, behavioral psychologists rejected the medical model in favor of the operant conditioning technique. The approach stressed the work with children with special needs moved towards an approach favored by behaviorist psychologists. They criticisized the medical approach and saw the operant technique more adequate since it stressed the importance and risks associated with the problems and issues related in fulfilling the needs of special children by putting that responsibility on teachers (Lewis, 1999). The behaviorist technique turned out to be very helpful as it was directly effective in helping the children as well as in suppressing their particular difficulties with more understanding. De?nition of Special Educational Needs Children have special educational needs if they suffer during the process of learning which naturally raises the need for the development of a special educational provision for them. Children encounter learning difficulty if they: a) face a greater difficulty in learning as compare to the other children of the same age group; or b) have a disability which keeps them away or hinders them from facilitating themselves from the use of educational services of a kind generally provided for children of the same age group in schools and other institutes within the vicinity of the local education authority; c) are under obligatory school age and come within the de?nition at a) Or b) above or in case if the special educational provision was not developed for them. Children must not be discriminated on having a learning difficulty only on the basis of language or any form of language they speak at home which maybe different from the language or medium in which they will be taught. Special educational