How Does Increased "Wait Time Affect the Quantity of Correct Responses to Question from Elementary ELL Course Date Literature Review In the 21st century, the effect of wait-time on the quality of responses to questions in classroom setting has turned out to be a point of debate among scholars and researchers…
Despite the comprehensive understanding of the role of thinking in reading process, there exists very few researches that seek to clarify the time required by a student in answering classroom’ questions(Brenda, 1999). However, the existing researches have classified the time required before responding to a question into eight categories, post-teacher question time, within-student’s response pause-time, post-student response wait-time, student pause-time, teacher pause-time, within-teacher presentation pause-time, student task-completion work-time as well as impact pause-time (Stahl, 1994). Several researches has as well confirmed that, adequate wait-time give students enough time to process the received information, use the available techniques and strategies to come up with an accurate answer and to encode the received information (Stahl, 1994). Adequate wait-time also advances cognitive learning skills compared to short wait-time. In addition, researches have as well found out that, student who pursue second language requires adequate amount of time in order to translate the new information into their native language (Stahl, 1994). Second language students have limited meta-cognitive processes of understanding new information compared to native speakers. To understand teachers or instructors instruction, second language students ought to be given adequate time to understand and respond to classrooms questions (Rowe, 1986). Information processing models of learning have as well indicated that, providing adequate time for learners to understand and formulate teachers’ questions prior to giving response increase the quality of the answer. This is especially the cases on questions that require a lot of facts and accuracy (Donna and John, 2006). In reference to the model, in answering a question, a learner requires sufficient time to locate the relevant information in long-term memory, retrieve the information into work memory and to evaluate whether the retrieved information can adequately answer the posed question (Rowe, 1986). In answering questions that requires applications of external information, a learner is supposed to apply the retrieved facts into the current situation and identify the accuracy of the facts before responding to the question (Orpha, 1994). If the questions require additional information, the learner is therefore expected to have more time to retrieved additional information from long-term memory and apply the retrieved information to the new situation (Alejandro and Celeste, 2003). As a result, offering additional information to a student before responding to the posed question gives a learner adequate time to search for the needed information, retrieve the information, apply the retrieved information, evaluate the information as if need be to seek for additional information (Alejandro and Celeste, 2003). In addition, the provision of adequate time to master a question helps a student to have better mastery of the content. Moreover, completing the process of retrieving information assists a student to identify accurate information to the posed question. Adequate time to recover the store information also plays an incredibly crucial role in improving ...
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The effects associated with increased wait-time on the quantity of correct responses to questions from elementary ELL students in a classroom have raised major concerns in the teaching profession. There has been an increase in the number of culturally and linguistically diverse students prompting education professionals to upgrade their skills and knowledge to ensure effective teaching in ELL classrooms.
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Wait-time has become a principle element in the research of elementary English Language Learners’ (ELL) teaching in the 21st century. The effects associated with increased wait-time on the quantity of correct responses to questions from elementary ELL students in a classroom have raised major concerns in the teaching profession.
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