Operant Conditioning Name Institution Tutor Date Operant Conditioning Operant conditioning is behavior acquisition that is controlled by its consequences. The behavior is reversible depending on the reinforcement schedules. Empirical studies and theoretical approaches have classified operant behavior into two classes of interval timing and choice…
Subjects opt for alternatives that result to low risks. Choice introduces self-control where the subject learns how to wait for better rewards instead of settling on immediate smaller rewards. A reinforcement schedule delivers reinforcement to an organism according to a predefined rule. Food is a common reinforcement used to condition hungry rats and pigeons. The schedule delivers the food for a switch closure as a result of a lever press or a peck. Similar experiments have been conducted on humans and the results are similar to those from animals. However, human beings have resulted into a wider range of adopted behavioral strategies compared to animals. A time-based schedule is the most effective where the reinforcement is delivered after a fixed or variable time period. A time marker or the reinforcement is utilized in time-based schedules. Trial-by-trial versions are also utilized during conditioning. For example, in the fixed interval schedule, an inter-trial interval precedes each trial and extra-empty trials where no food is given to the rats. In operant conditioning, the acquired behavior is reversible and can only be repeated when the reinforcement is available. ...
This is evident in different results from subsequent results of the experimental history. This indicates that the animal has undergone some internal transformation, but the learned behavior is reversible. Several researchers have encountered problems when uncovering the reversible behavior and the nonreversible internal state of the animal. Skinner is concerned with the reversible behavior and not the internal state of the subject. This makes it difficult to draw a plausible conclusion on the cause of the reversible behavior when a second reinforcement is withdrawn after a short exposure. During conditioning, the organism is exposed to the reinforcement at timed intervals. Doubling the interval time doubles the wait time after a learning period. The organism develops an approximation to the interval to be timed. In some procedures, the organism can be exposed to a stimulus and different responses are expected after an absolute or relative duration. The subject can be exposed to two stimuli that confront it with two choices. For example, a rat can be given food after either a press on the left or right lever. After a learning period, the subject is presented with the two stimuli in lieu, which introduces the question of how it distributes the responses. The subject has to develop an intermediate duration in order to differentiate between the two stimuli. Other factors such as the degree of hunger can influence the response during a fixed interval procedure. A time discrimination procedure can mitigate this problem. The subject is exposed to food after a fixed time followed by a longer period of no food. This helps the subject learn to wait then respond until the behavior has been learnt properly. Interval timing is widely used by ...
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Personality theories developed in contemporary times have rather varied emphasis compared to the characteristic theories or the psychodynamic conjectures. While B.F. Skinner may not have a personality theory, his operant conditioning theory can be utilized in the formulation of how personality statement is formed and how it operates.
According to the report Skinner advanced fresh forms of learning other than classical conditioning. Contrary to Watson’s ideas, Skinner believed that internal thoughts and motivations cannot entirely explain behavior. Skinner held that the best ways of understanding behavior entailed exploring the causes of an action and its consequences.
In it, he posited that the voluntary behaviors of an individual might change in form, resilience, and the frequency in occurrence through the induction of reinforcements or punishments (Bernstein, 2010). Reinforcements can either be positive or negative, and they encourage an individual to continue engaging in the desired behavior.
Frederic Skinner grew up in Susquehanna, Pennsylvania. He was born in March 20, 1904 (Bjork, 2007). As a child, he was dynamic and enjoyed going outdoors. In addition, he also liked academic challenges. Together with his younger brother, their parents brought them up to be persistent.
Operant behaviors are those behaviors that bring out a consequence since the individual’s operation is on their personal environment. Furthermore, Tucker, Sigafoos and Bushell (1998) assert that the concentration of the theory is directed towards the relationship that exists between operant behavior and the resulting consequences.
Psychologists have been developing different theories that try to explain the different ways of life of people and organisms. However, there are some psychological perspectives and core values that have remained intact over the years. These are vital reflections that tend to explain the way of life and why things unfold in a particular manner.
Classical conditioning was first described by a Russian physiologist Ivan Pavlov and operant conditioning was first described by an American psychologist B. F. Skinner (Cherry, 2013). Although both processes promote learning in an individual, they are inherently different from each other.
He met with William Crozier who worked in the psychological department this time. The two worked on the psychological development of animal, as this was the field that Crozier had already made his name in. the behavioral framework that had been set by the two was based on the behavioral measures (Thorndike, 1995).
Through operant conditioning, a person makes a connection between a specific behavior and a consequence. An example is when a child who has good grades being rewarded with good prizes by the parents or guardians. The child realizes eventually that when he/she gets
This method of learning was later popularized by B.F. Skinner who worked on reproducing Konorski’s experiments by terming it as ‘respondent behavior. Classical conditioning also gets referred to as respondent or Pavlovian conditioning. As a philosophy of
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