Constructivism To begin one must understand the theory of constructivism and positivism. Constructivism is a part of developmental psychology and its’ focus is on thinking and learning and the individual is an active tool in this process. The question of constructivism is how the individual engages himself or herself in the cognitive process. (Ornstein, 1998) Constructivism is a method that includes psychology, sociology, linguistics, and philosophy. Knowledge is constructed and they participate in social realms and that creates meaning through various thinking processes used by teachers and students. The reality that they (the constructivists) create is subjective rather than objective. The overall goal of this theory is to get students to be active in learning. Meaning and participation is very important in the classroom. New learning is always happening and making connections with previous learning in class and other prior experiences. Constructivists believe in the old and the new ways of learning. They believe in forming awareness of what is around them. In this method meta-cognition and constructivist thinking go hand in hand for all thinking follows certain procedures that can and do create knowledge, regulate knowledge and utilize this knowledge. According to Gage constructivists could believe in the scientific method while making adjustments to what is learned in and out of the classroom. Constructivists reshape or transform the information that is learned. Consideration and reflection on ideas as we construct reality so that we can understand it better. This agrees with the ant-naturalists theme except one cannot control or predict how teaching and learning progresses. In the years of the 60’s and 70’s the classrooms were big on experiments and sharing and how will this learning be used by the student in the classroom and the community and how the meaning that we were suppose to learn from other accumulated knowledge. This idea goes on to say why we do not just learn our lessons by rote and why do we have to analyze it for finding our own ideas. Everything is reality-based. According to Gage and the Interpretative critique he wondered if objectivity and various interpretations of ideas and theories actually did work together and agrees with Hodkinson and Macleod study. This is when classroom management ideas were starting to be present and teachers were starting to become accountable for all learning in the schools and the community. Classrooms were starting to use the three learning domains of learning. These domains are the Cognitive domain, the Affective domain, and the Psychomotor domain. In other terms it means thinking, feeling and doing. Teachers and students were still able to make their own interpretations, but we were able to state our opinions on some of what we were learning. We still had to learn the rules or the basics before moving on to more advanced thinking. In the critical analysts’ view of learning and teaching along with Hodkinson and Macleod, education is to be efficient, rational, and objective. Under this view power, motivation and change were the key words in the field of education. In dealing with the curriculum, knowledge and teaching and how the social structure changes with what we learn and teach. Education is about learning structure and meaning for you must know the basics, but you will need to make adjustments to wh
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