A similarity in the two sources is that they have a theoretical framework that relates achievement with social class and race or ethnic difference. On the theoretical border line of consumerism, gender and identity, In the report Choice Pathways and Transitions, the identity of the group under monitoring (cohorts) is no longer based on the old judgments based on class or gender but on the key aspect of identity; social class (Ball et.al. 2000, p.3). In the book addressing the classroom issues, the author cites griffins (1998) where he stated that many boys who are under-achieving, the difference is because of race and social class. Both sources also state that ethnic enculturation is a major impact while considering students achievements. Phoenix (1987) explained that ethnicity affects the constructs of gender (sex) and power. Different cultures take different behaviours as gendered in varying (more or less gender specific) ways. Social class also influences culture constructions (Skeleton, 1997). Cultural theory in addressing the class room issue, also add that children school differently due to their social class; middle-mothers guarantee their children schooling success than working-class mothers. In the book addressing the classroom issues, the decision making for students is influenced mainly by the classroom inequalities, their social life and cultural issues e.g. association of language with femininity (Francis B., p.5), the association gender with roles e.g., girls cannot do hard subjects like mathematics. This is contrasting with Choice, pathways and transition report, where decision choices were influenced by the theoretical framework of individualism rather than as a result of structured constraints like classroom inequalities like in the...
This essay focuses on the social and historical contexts of the themes that motivated the undertaking of this research. There are four main reasons why this study was conducted. The first theoretical borderline was to study the effect of the increase and outspread of the culture of individuality and the economic science of individualisation. Here, the study noted that there have been, in the duration of one generation, some revolutionary changes to the distinctive experiences of youth and one among the most often contested of the changes is the issue of decision making whereby young people have a certain extent to which they view their decision making as personal or individual choice and not as a product of structured conditions, which must be satisfied.
This report makes a conclusion that the two studies acknowledge and appreciate that the events of the world affect all people, but they do so differently on the youth. These youths assume their choices, pathways and transitions in a dynamic urban environment full of many opportunities, challenges, oppressions, despairs and excitements. The main argument in this essay is that young people lead their life differently as a result of their differences in gender, the social class they belong to and the identities they fake or assume. Another argument is that the social, individual and material resources desirable to live a reflexively organised lifestyle are not equally reachable to all. The researchers found out that there are organizational factors like unemployment, poor pay, discrimination, lack of support, interrupted schooling, lack of formal qualifications, low self-confidence, and poverty as forming track-lines through the lives of some young people.