Constructivism as the Most Effective Psychological Learning Theory to Apply to Adult Learners Course: Lecturer: Module Code and Title: Date Submitted: Andragogy, as a relatively modern term, describes the process of developing and executing learning strategies focused solely on adult learners…
It is built upon certain observed characteristics of adults, which affect the way in which they learn and relate new information (Knowles et al, 2005). Due to the distinguishing characteristics of adult learners, certain psychological theories must be applied in order to maximise on learning potential which requires several actions to be taken, such as assessing the current state and needs of the learner, defining the end goal of instruction, and creating a systematic instructional format based upon this. To succeed, it is dependent upon pedagogically tested psychological theories, the principal approaches being behaviourism, cognitivism and constructivism. Primarily characterised by their individual interpretations of what constitutes ‘learning’ and how it occurs, these approaches provide instructors with verified strategies and techniques for facilitating learning. This essay will discuss the defining characteristics and necessary conditions for adult learning as postulated by theorist Malcolm Knowles. It will then examine behaviourism, cognitivism and constructivism as general approaches to learning with particular emphasis on the superiority of constructivism in this context and how it can be applied to adult learning. One of the central principles which surround the teaching of adult learners is that of individual experience. “As a person matures he accumulates a growing reservoir of experience that becomes an increasing resource for learning” (Smith, 2011). Unlike children, adults have inevitably built up a wealth of personal experience which can be utilized in a way which can help learning, such as relating new information to previous experience, recalling previous experience, and/or using familiar examples to apply learning to unfamiliar concepts. Teaching strategies which build upon experiential learning will be an extension of everyday life (Knowles et al, 2005). Adult learners partake in a process which sees them reflect, draw inference from and conceptualize, based upon previous individual experience. As this wealth of experience is seen as the richest resource of information for the learner, it must be pointed out that individual experience is fundamentally biased and of an entirely subjective nature. This implies that new information may be interpreted in different ways, which can be advantageous as it allows for new ideas and opinions, but can also have its disadvantages regarding personal bias. A second principle which is determined to be of special significance to adult learning is that of the self-concept. Within the paradigm of learning, self-concept relates to the movement of an individual’s perception of themselves as a self-directed person rather than being dependent upon others. Adults are viewed as being responsible and fully accountable for their own decisions and therefore must be treated as autonomous learners. Due to this perspective, autonomy is seen as vitally important for this theory. In its broadest sense, self-directed learning describes a set of actions in which potential learners take the initiative in identifying their learning needs and goals, and evaluating learning outcomes. The steps involved in working through such a process have generated several model which have since been re-imagined into a more interactive design which takes into account the nature and contextual elements of the learning (Cooper, 2009). Readiness to learn, or motivation to learn, is another ...
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(“Behaviorism Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 3000 words”, n.d.)
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(Behaviorism Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 3000 Words)
“Behaviorism Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 3000 Words”, n.d. https://studentshare.net/education/9107-behaviorism.
It has continuously made a giant leap in the way information technology and systems analysis and design has been going about since its inception in the late seventies and earlyeighties. After reading the excerpt of “In the Plex,” one cannot help but think and wonder how Google is going to pull-off its limitless ambition of overtaking, if not directly, Facebook while setting new boundaries for smart phones.
Behaviorism Name Institution Abstract John B. Watson established the psychological school of thought pertaining to behaviorism. Evidently, in Watson’s psychology review paper, the fundamental precincts of behaviorism were based on notion that beliefs could be changed, trained and measured.
Speaking Applications 2.2 Deliver oral responses to literature Writing 2.4 Write persuasive compositions Lesson Objective(s): Students should be able to: 1. Demonstrate comprehension by orally paraphrasing the lines of the poem 2. Provide critical analysis of the situation of the persona (i.e., reasons behind their experience) 3.
2 students are special education with an Independent Education Plan for mild behavior modifications. A teacher’s assistant is assigned to the classroom and a special education Resource Specialist is also available for assistance.
Watson saw psychology from the perspective that it was not a study of the mind or consciousness; rather it was a measure of behavior and that humans like apes and rats could have their behavior objectively studied (DeMar, 1989). Behaviorists believe that behavior can be measured irrespective of the internal mental states and the objectivity of behavior measurement suggests that only the observable behaviors should be studied as the internal states like emotions and cognitions have high subjective quality to them and bear no consideration when measuring behavior (Cherry, 2012).
According to the paper the behaviorist approach gives much more emphasis on external stimuli and assumes that much of the learned behavior is an outcome of the external factors which can be observed objectively giving little or no significance to internal stimuli. The deliberate ignoring of cognitive processes and role of biological factors in human behavior.
The theory stresses on the concept that internal psychological processes are not necessary for explanation of behaviors; rather they are influenced by the external not an internal (mind) environment. The idea of observable behavior made it easier to collect and calculate the information during the research conduction.
In relation to the theory of behaviorism, students were expected to learn only basic skills such as arithmetic, reading and writing. According to behaviorism theory, learning is a permanent change is behavior that has little to
The “mentalistic” psychology often showed much difficulty to the psychologists in relation to the disorder’s diagnosis and making of predictions concerning this disorder that was frequently tested using rigorous
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