The development of a child is characterized by many aspects which influence his life very much. The behavior of a child will vary in different circumstances, and the child will develop different in these circumstances…
A child may develop different behaviors at different ages but the challenging behavior is most vital since it needs to be controlled as early as possible. Most people believe that the success of a child will depend on his ability to respond to prevention of challenging behaviors. Children who Challenging behavior is an abnormal behavior whose frequency, occurrence and duration greatly jeopardize the physical safety of the victim and that of other around him. This behavior in most cases denies the person access to ordinary social and communal facilities .Challenging behavior could be demonstrated by any person, but is mostly experienced in people with developmental disabilities, dementia, and psychosis and most often by children (Kaiser, 2007, p.13) Types of challenging behaviors Challenging behavior can manifest itself in different ways depending on the nature of the child. Calm children will react very different from violent children even under the same circumstances. The most important thing is that the children will react negatively to those people who cause their problems. A common characteristic is self injuring behavior especially when a child is angry. This involves engaging in behaviors that cause physical harm or injuries to oneself. Most children will do this immediately they are offended in order to seek for attention. For example hitting oneself, biting oneself or even head butting. Most children develop aggressive behavior towards those people who influence them to develop a challenging behavior. This involves all behavior that harms others physically. They include hitting others, biting others, spitting on others, screaming, punching and kicking others among others (Emerson, 1995, p.24) Some children engage in early sexual behavior to express their feelings about some things. This includes all acts of abnormal behavior involving sexual acts. For example public masturbation, rape, and watching pornographic materials. Property directed behavior theory. In this theory, the behavior of the child is believed to cause destruction to property around the person. The reaction of the child is linked to the It includes throwing of objects, physical destruction and even stealing (Emerson, 2011, p.32) Theories of challenging behaviors Challenging behavior has various causes, most of which are beyond the control of the individual exhibiting the behavior. These could be social, biological, environmental or psychological among others. Social cause theory: this theory holds that the behavior of a child is attributed by the society in which he is brought up. These are the social interactions with other people, friends and relatives. This is based on the theory that behaviors are enhanced and influenced by observation on others actions and behaviors. Boredom, social interaction and social norms could trigger certain type of behaviors in people. Peer groups could also influence one to develop certain abnormal behaviors. The children will adopt the behaviors that are common in a certain society. A society that does not condemn a challenging behavior will encourage the children to be unruly. (David, 1974, p.53) Biological causes theory. This theory is based on the theory that behavior results from biological and biochemical processes. Conditions such as pain and certain medication may cause challenging behaviors. Certain inherited characteristics from parents also influence behavior. The child learns most of the behaviors from their parents. The parents should avoid acting in a manner that predisposes the children to a challenging beh ...
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Research Questions The research questions for studying school refusal behaviour are as follows: Research Question 1. How pertinent or relevant is school refusal behaviour in schools ? Research Question 2. Is school refusal behaviour common in a certain population or common among men than women, among boys rather than girls?
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3 Pages(750 words)Literature review
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