The clear-cut linkage between ASD in these instances notwithstanding, the causes of ASD remain unclear in higher than 90% of all instances, but in the current studies, a lot of focus is directed to proving the genetic linkages by identifying the specific genes allied to autism. Meanwhile, in the absence of concrete genetic evidence for autism, documented empirical data concerning autism cases provides a basis for the estimation of recurrence risk, which has been found to be about 5% when only one child in a family is affected but considerably higher than that to about 25% when more than one child is affected. Rate of recurrence risk is also determined by sex of the foetus because a male foetus has been found to be about 3-4 times more likely to develop autism than a female foetus; in this respect, the recurrence risk in accordance to sex is about 2% for a female foetus but close to 8% for a male foetus. In understanding the etiology of ASD, professionals in the field of medicine have proposed several theoretic frameworks; for instance, Gerrad and Rugg 2009 propose the development of a standardized framework for analysing autistic characteristics to facilitate the identification of subgroups and the location of biological markers for genetic variation (Gerrad and Rugg 2009, p.1449). The two also support the neuroconstructivist model that contends that peripheral sensual defects interrupt compilation of complex skills, influence synapto-genesis, synaptic pruning and myelination, and manifests themselves as autistic conducts. Of all the cognitive-developmental disorders, autism is perhaps the most clearly genetically determined and by combining universal rates of autism and sibling recurrence, there emerges a simple genetic model that categorizes...
This essay stresses that Autistic Spectrum Disorder (ASD) represents a group of neurodevelopmental disorders that manifest in infants less than 3 years of age and lasts for a lifetime; autistic children present with impairments in social interaction, communication and repetitive patterns of behaviour. Cases of infantile autism are prevalent in the world today with males being overrepresented with a rate of sibling recurrence risk that is nearly 4 to 5 times higher than females in families. The etiological foundation of autism is highly elusive to clinicians in the world, but the genetic explanation prevalent in current research is attributable to the observations that the rate of recurrence of autism in the siblings of autistic individuals is much higher than the rate of recurrence in the general population.
This paper makes a conclusion that one of the most influential theoretic models in existence insofar as autism is concerned, the neuroconstructivist model, posits that compilation of complex skills, synapto-genesis, synaptic pruning and myelination are disrupted by peripheral sensory abnormalities. In the educational settings, autistic children mainly struggle with communication and social interaction problems, with difficulties particularly in both verbal and non-verbal communication, in addition to the ability to interact with peers in leisure or play activities. Autistic children present a myriad of challenges to educational settings because unlike neurotypical children, autistic children require special interventions.