This paper aims to provide a critical examination of the characteristics and causal theories of ASD and the challenges this raises for mainstream educational settings, and how these challenges can be addressed to promote educational outcomes for cases of autism…
The clear-cut linkage between ASD in these instances notwithstanding, the causes of ASD remain unclear in higher than 90% of all instances, but in the current studies, a lot of focus is directed to proving the genetic linkages by identifying the specific genes allied to autism. Meanwhile, in the absence of concrete genetic evidence for autism, documented empirical data concerning autism cases provides a basis for the estimation of recurrence risk, which has been found to be about 5% when only one child in a family is affected but considerably higher than that to about 25% when more than one child is affected. Rate of recurrence risk is also determined by sex of the foetus because a male foetus has been found to be about 3-4 times more likely to develop autism than a female foetus; in this respect, the recurrence risk in accordance to sex is about 2% for a female foetus but close to 8% for a male foetus. In understanding the etiology of ASD, professionals in the field of medicine have proposed several theoretic frameworks; for instance, Gerrad and Rugg 2009 propose the development of a standardized framework for analysing autistic characteristics to facilitate the identification of subgroups and the location of biological markers for genetic variation (Gerrad and Rugg 2009, p.1449). The two also support the neuroconstructivist model that contends that peripheral sensual defects interrupt compilation of complex skills, influence synapto-genesis, synaptic pruning and myelination, and manifests themselves as autistic conducts. Of all the cognitive-developmental disorders, autism is perhaps the most clearly genetically determined and by combining universal rates of autism and sibling recurrence, there emerges a simple genetic model that categorizes...
This essay stresses that Autistic Spectrum Disorder (ASD) represents a group of neurodevelopmental disorders that manifest in infants less than 3 years of age and lasts for a lifetime; autistic children present with impairments in social interaction, communication and repetitive patterns of behaviour. Cases of infantile autism are prevalent in the world today with males being overrepresented with a rate of sibling recurrence risk that is nearly 4 to 5 times higher than females in families. The etiological foundation of autism is highly elusive to clinicians in the world, but the genetic explanation prevalent in current research is attributable to the observations that the rate of recurrence of autism in the siblings of autistic individuals is much higher than the rate of recurrence in the general population.
This paper makes a conclusion that one of the most influential theoretic models in existence insofar as autism is concerned, the neuroconstructivist model, posits that compilation of complex skills, synapto-genesis, synaptic pruning and myelination are disrupted by peripheral sensory abnormalities. In the educational settings, autistic children mainly struggle with communication and social interaction problems, with difficulties particularly in both verbal and non-verbal communication, in addition to the ability to interact with peers in leisure or play activities. Autistic children present a myriad of challenges to educational settings because unlike neurotypical children, autistic children require special interventions. ...
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(Autistic Spectrum Disorder (ASD) Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 2750 Words)
“Autistic Spectrum Disorder (ASD) Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 2750 Words”, n.d. https://studentshare.net/education/98003-autistic-spectrum-disorder-asd.
In the economically inferior states, the main concern has to be with the masses of teenagers who never get to see the inside of a school let alone the classrooms. For the meantime, in more affluent countries countless young individuals leave school with no valuable diplomas, despite the fact that others are to be found in a number of forms of unusual provision away from conventional learning practices, and various simply decide on to give up since the schoolings seem neither here nor there to their lives.
The brain functioning of an Asperger syndrome individual develops at a usual range but with marked deficits in social interaction and communication. Asperger syndrome, which is more prevalent in males, is rarely diagnosed and often mistaken as high-functioning autism.
(Akshoomoff 2005). In recent revision of DVM-IV, autism is placed under the category of Pervasive Developmental Disorder. Autistic Spectrum Disorders refers to both autism and Asperger’s disorder. The characteristic impairment in ASD occurs in three domains: social, behavioral and communication.
The definition of ASD is based on the clinical diagnostic criteria mentioned in the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, fourth edition. Autistic Spectrum Disorders include autism, pervasive developmental disorder-not otherwise specified and Asperger’s syndrome.
ASD is said to refer to a class of brain disorders that are developmental in nature, and which are tied to a wide-ranging child conditions related to impairment levels, disabilities, skills, and symptoms. The DSM-IV-TR, also known as the Fourth Edition of the Diagnostic Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders.
This disability also affects how an individual agrees with ideas and behaviours of other people. It also affects how such people make sense of the deeds of other people surrounding them (Baron-Cohen, 2008). Autism is a spectrum condition meaning that although individuals with autism share certain challenges, their conditions affect them differently.
However, paradoxically, the child in such a state has little awareness of being a 'self'. In 1960, autism was reported in 4 to 5 cases per 10,000 children. The prevalence of cases rose to 5 to 31 cases per 10,000 children in 1990 (Iovannone, Dunlap, Huber, & Kincaid, 2003).
Now when man has become the most civilized creature on Earth, he uses highly sophisticated language that has developed over the centuries. Though, he faced difficulty in the beginning, he persevered and was gradually
mental disorders include autism, Asperger Syndrome, in addition to, Pervasive Developmental Disorder, not otherwise specified (Whitelaw et al 2007 p.752). Autism, also referred to as ‘infantile autism’ is a behavioural syndrome and currently it is defined as a pervasive
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