Saudi undergraduates’ perceptions about English academic listening difficulties and their strategies to cope with these difficulties at Umm Al-Qura University Literature review Listening is considered an important skill in acquiring first language and is crucial in the process of Second Language learning…
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For English language schools in Iran however, the skills of listening are not highlighted even with the significant access available in terms of listening materials in classrooms, such as CDs and DVDs. As a result, students believed that their difficulties in understanding what they were listening to did not match their competence. According to Graham (2006) persistent issues in securing listening skills may cause passivity as well as a decreased motivation and decreased involvement in the lessons. In other words, the listening skill is not given enough attention in the classroom and is not given sufficient value in the global setting (Graham, 2006). Two challenges are seen in the listening skill. One challenge refers to the understanding of the skills process itself, and another is on selecting the medium by which the listening strategy can be transmitted in the classroom (Graham, 2006). The latter may inhibit students from improving their listening skills at the lower levels in the classroom setting. Studies on explicit listening instructions seem to be important in terms of the choice of language and in securing listening strategies because the challenge at the lower language levels is to understand the context of teaching the listening strategies. ...
Nagle and Sanders (1986) have secured a listening comprehension-processing model indicating how the automatic and controlled processes help listeners secure meaning based on an oral input. Moreover, evidence based on a varied context and input from the Constructivist construction by Vandergrift (1999) suggests how listeners can gain meaning based on oral support. Various studies highlight the types of learning strategies which second language learners apply during listening (Carrier, 2003; Chang and read, 2006). Authors contend that good language learner applications must be used in order to help students who are struggling in their language learning. Hassan and colleagues (2005) carried out a review of ESL studies which highlighted learning strategies from various languages. Most of the studies indicated that learning strategies, include metacognitive (learning awareness), cognitive (mental learning), and socioaffective learning (individual and social interaction behaviour). Hassan, et.al., (2005) identified learning strategies as strategies which learners use often in order to improve their learning. Chang and Read (2007) assessed visual support in the process of foreign language learning processes, evaluating the effect of various kinds of listening support on low level proficiently learners in English learning in Taiwan. Four groups took part in their study with two groups assigned to listening supports and another one focused on pictures or a written background text. A third group was a recipient to listening input repetition and the fourth group was the control group, not having any listening support. A listening proficiency test followed, then a short ...
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