He agreed to work with Dr. Cynthia for designing an instructional material with a list of suggestions and delivery method of the same. However, according to the study, Clifford, the experienced instruction designer found Dr. Cynthia to be his toughest client in his career. He faced a number of difficulties in designing the material and till date he has not been able to complete any normal ID task of his (Ertmer and Cennamo, n.d.).
Challenges faced by the instructional designers
Clifford lacked the essential data of learner’s characteristics, which is the most important information an instruction designer needs to develop the pattern of instruction (Ertmer and Cennamo, n.d.). Most designers put stress on learners and learning outcomes prior to the designing of instruction. The learning process complexities and several critical human dimensions are required to be understood by designers which come into play. Learners carry a wealth of experiences and traits with them to a training setting or education that play a significant part in measuring the success of the instruction. It also includes normal profile factors that tell about the learners’ background, capability and several attitudinal factors. Many of these factors have notable impacts on the learners’ motivation to learn. A basket of prerequisite skills and knowledge are also brought by the learners to the instructional setting. These entry skills are highly related to the content of a particular instructional experience (Richey, James, Klein, and Tracey, 2010. p.170). The second problem faced by Clifford was regarding contextual analysis. In spite of having four meetings with Oakes, Clifford could not gather the necessary important information that could help him during contextual analysis (Ertmer and Cennamo, n.d.). Contextual analysis plays a key role in designing and developing instructions for learning. Instructional context provides rich data about real world scenario and examples. There are few reasons that necessitate analysis of context. First, every aspect of the leaning experiences is influenced by context. Second, Context as a collection of factors can facilitate or inhibit instruction and learning. Third, multiple contexts can be required a by single classroom. For example, sixth grade students might need to do survey in neighboring historical buildings, do research in computer lab and in historic society and arrange a meeting in a hallway in a problem based learning approach. An instructional designer should analyze three types of contexts. They are orienting context where learner is focused primarily, instructional context that suggests about the scheduling and physical environment of the training and another is transfer context, which enables the opportunities for transferring the skills and knowledge to new situations (Morrison, Ross, Kalman, and Kemp, 2011, pp.65-66). Although Clifford did have his notes and resources from the four meetings with Oaks, but it just did seem remotely related to his assignment (Ertmer and Cennamo, n.d.). As a result, he could not create an objective domain. Objective domains are classifications or categories of objectives that helps instructional designers for determining several important elements of design. There are four domains of objective such as, cognitive, affective, psychomotor and interpersonal. These help designers to determine how to structure evaluations, objectives and delivery system. For an example, an instructional designer was working on training system for technicians for repairing a certain type of computer. It might require usage all the four domains. Such as,