It is believed by some educators that the high school senior year is redundant for majority of the students since typically they satisfy all high school diploma requirements and go on to pursue post secondary education by the time junior year ends (Andrews, 2004). …
To resolve this issue of seniors “blowing off the senior year” due to a lack of any substantial challenge, in 1973 the Project Advance program of Syracuse University was created (Andrews, 2004). Following this development the model was adopted by various institutions and consequently there was an emergence of a multitude of dual credit programs. In 1974, LaGuardia Community College, New York established the Middle College High School program targeting alienated and at risk students in typical high schools who potentially may not succeed in acquiring their diplomas (Lewis & Overman, 2008). Similar programs were adopted by Florida International University in 1982 (Partners in Progress) and Kingsborough Community College in 1984 (College Now). Motivated by the success of the Minnesota dual credit program, Washington State passed the ‘Running Start’ program in 1990 which allowed juniors and seniors with necessary qualifications to take college level courses at technical and community colleges without having to pay college tuition. In 1994 this was expanded to incorporate four year universities if there were no community colleges in the high school district (Kim & Bragg, 2008; Board, 2011)
In 2004, the legislature founded House Bill 3103 which established federal guidelines tailored to provide assistance to high schools via increasing the magnitude of dual credit programs, expanding the breadth of the curriculum of these programs, and tutoring/mentoring students to aid in a seamless transition into postsecondary educational institutions (Washington State Higher Education Coordinating Board, 2005). Definitional Issues Opinion is divided among experts regarding the proper terminology that should be accorded to the opportunity provided to high school students to attend college classes which generate credits at both high school and college levels. The Texas Higher Education Coordinating Board defines a dual credit course as one that includes academic as well as technical courses. For the present purpose, dual enrollment hereon is defined following Klein (2007, p.23) as “courses that allow high school students to receive both high school and college credit simultaneously”. These modules are typically taught by professors or adjunct instructors belonging to the institution, and the same classes are attended by college and high school students. Concurrent enrollment for early-college high schools is also located on the college campus but only high school students attend class. The Early College High School, founded by the Bill and Melinda Gates foundation in 2002 serves traditionally underrepresented students by enabling them to access the simultaneous pursuit of college credits and a high school (American Institute for Research, 2009). Because they are easier to implement as well as less expensive, concurrent and dual enrollments have gained greater popularity (Karp & Bailey, April 2005). Kim & Bragg (2008) additionally distinguish articulated credit courses such as career and technical education, International Baccalaureate and Advanced Placement which only allow high school students to apply for the college credits. The present literature review will restrict its focus to concurrent and dual credit courses. Notably, these courses have the twin fold benefit of assisting a high school student either to an academic career or into the workforce (Texas Higher Education Coordinating Board, 2011). The paper will primarily address the following questions: 1. What are the principal benefits and major concerns for students who participate in dual enrollment/dual credit programs? 2. What are the central advantages and disadvantages for partnering institutions? 3. What ...
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