StudentShare solutions
Triangle menu

PhD - Essay Example

Nobody downloaded yet

Extract of sample

..51 7 3.34.REFERENCES ……………………………………………………………..53 7 3.48.CHAPTER 2 8 Fuel Economy 9 3.50.The fuel economy(FE) of any vehicle can be calculated as a ratio of distance travelled per unit volume of fuel consumed or as the ratio of fuel consumption per distance travelled (GFEI,n.d.). An et al (2011, p4) note that fuel economy standards can be of various forms such as liters of fuel consumed per hundred kilometers of distance travelled or kilometers travelled per liter of vehicle fuel. The global average vehicle fuel consumption hovers around 8L/100 km corresponding to 29.4 mpg and a global drive under the aegis of GFEI, whose partner organizations are the UNEP, IEA, ITF , ITCC and the FIA Foundation has been launched to bring it down to 4L/100km corresponding to 58.8 mpg by 2050 (GFEI,n.d.).The regulations pertaining to fuel economy followed by the four largest automobile markets, namely, the US, the EU, Japan and China differ significantly from each other (An et al, 2011, p4). 10 3.51.The fFactors affecting fuel economy of a vehicle 11 4.Power for consumption by accessories such as air conditioners and heaters is obtained from fuel consumption. The electric power required for operating an air conditioner in a vehicle can be split up into two components, namely, as the power for the compressor and the power for fans. It was found that there was an average increase in power consumption of around 27% in cars with air conditioners running at full power as compared to cars with air conditioners switched off OECD(2004,p124-125).The additional weight of the air-conditioning system by itself results in more fuel consumption due to extra energy required to beat the inertia of the system during acceleration and in turn increases the tailpipe emissions. Auxiliary heaters also contribute to increased fuel consumption and emissions. The ongoing technological developmental work for fuel economy carried out in vehicle air conditioners include reduction in component weight, improvement in compressor efficiency by adopting variable displacement or engine speed independent propulsion, intelligent control accuracy to increase temperature control accuracy, heat pumps, absorption systems, thermal storage, use of refrigerants with lower Global Warming Potential(GWP) with non-conventional system configuration and secondary loop systems(OECD,2004,p126-127).The power requirement of electrical equipment in a modern car is around 1kW and could go up to 12kW in the near future. Table 2.2 (Pundir ,2008,p20) gives the power consumption of accessories in a typical European car.The voltages of the auxiliary electrical systems being developed in vehicles are expected to be changed to around 42V.Since the advanced range of on-board equipment in cars would comprise of computer controlled systems, mobile internet, fax, GPS,TV and video systems which need enhanced power input, highly efficient engines are required to be eq1uipped with alternator or Auxiliary Power Unit (APU) to supply the power(OECD,2004,127). 22 5. 25 6.Table 2.2 the power consumption of accessories in a typical European car ( Pundir,2008,p20) 26 Importance of fuel economy 26 9.2. 36 9.3.Table 2.3 fuel economy technologies for automobiles and light trucks ( NRC ,1992,p41) 36 Design and technology for fuel economy 36 9.6.Pundir(2008,p16-17) lists out the ...Show more


Table of Contents 3.validationIntroduction 5 3.21. 6 3.22. 6 3.24.TABLE OF CONTENTS 6 3.26.Chapter 2 7 What is Fuel Economy………………………………………….…… 3 7 Why is it Important ……………………………………………………9 7 How is it measured…………
Author : emardchauncey
PhD essay example
Read Text Preview
Save Your Time for More Important Things
Let us write or edit the essay on your topic
with a personal 20% discount.
Grab the best paper

Check these samples - they also fit your topic

Phd proposal
There have been success stories about availers of micro-credit financing setting up their own businesses and generating enough money to pay back their debt while sustaining their small enterprise. There are empirical studies that support the finding that women who earn their own income tend to direct this income for the expenditure of household consumption (Johnson, 2005).
14 pages (3500 words) Essay
Researches of Professor Margaret Kovera, Phd

Margaret Kovera’s study about scientifc evidence showed that regular people may not be able to discern flaw in a scientifice research.  This research coupled with a Supreme Court decision that judges must evaluate the reliability of a scientific evidence presented in Court to effectively evaluate scientific evidences. 

6 pages (1500 words) Essay
PHD proposal
This would be achieved by having a review of some of literary texts written in the 20th and 21st century. This is the theme that I propose to analyse by comparing and contrasting various literary texts. The thesis
4 pages (1000 words) Essay
Suggested specific researchable PhD topics
Literacy programs for women in the Middle East are a growing and developing resource. A proposed case study on these programs which centers on languages which are taught to these women as well as how they are taught. Specifically, global English and its prevalence in such
2 pages (500 words) Essay
PhD proposal
I have an undergraduate degree in medical microbiology. For eight years, I worked as a medical laboratory technician. Currently, I am
2 pages (500 words) Essay
Statement of Purpose for PhD in Supply Chain Management
It is basically a business process that is used by the companies to know whether the supply chain process is proving to be cost-effective or not. Supply chain is a business cycle, which
5 pages (1250 words) Essay
Answer PhD Application Questions
e Department of Technology Management at Polytechnic Institute of New York University, United States of America entrusted with the crucial responsibility of representing the Dean in meetings and other important events in his absence, and other job responsibilities which are
2 pages (500 words) Essay
Proposal (PhD)
It is by innovation that companies try to improve their business performance and their market share. Market orientation plays an essential rule in improving business performance, and product innovation. There are
4 pages (1000 words) Essay
Reasons of joining an DBA or PhD program
My career objective is to become a business strategy and development expert in an organization that uses modern technology processes in its operations. My goal is to ensure that such organizations have business development strategies that are both adaptable and effective
2 pages (500 words) Essay
Power Point PHD Defense
far as diversity among companies is concerned, what makes the case of Brazil very peculiar is that apart from the fact that there are several foreign companies that have foreign nationals working with them. Brazil also happens to be a country that serves as a labor destination
9 pages (2250 words) Essay
Hire a pro to write
a paper under your requirements!
Win a special DISCOUNT!
Put in your e-mail and click the button with your lucky finger
Your email
Comments (0)
Click to create a comment