NATM was implementing one of the firsts in almost everything. The technology of the method involves spraying shotcrete around the surrounding of the tunnel. This process leads to the formation of the supportive crust though temporarily. It was the first time that the project was used in London clay and the method being new most of the people working in the tunnel were not familiar with some of its aspects. In addition, the New Austrian Tunnelling Method (NATM) applied the self-certification method for the first time at the London Heathrow Airport site (Muir, 2000, p. 19). This method requires that contractors be charged with the responsibility of certifying their work. This method offers no opportunities for oversight management. The case resulted in Balfour Beatty receiving a heavy fine of one point two million pounds while the same court slammed Geoconsult with a five hundred thousand pounds fine for its less capable role. The collapse The collapse occurred on the night twentieth and twenty-first of October in nineteen ninety-four. There were no casualties but the cost of recovery amounted to one hundred and fifty million pounds. The project stalled for six more months and disruption of the underground Jubilee Line Extension. However, there were no casualties, the Health and Safety Executive (HSE) successfully filed a petition that resulted heavy fines of one million and two hundred pounds o both Balfour Beatty and Geoconsult with legal costs amounting to two hundred thousand pounds. Causes of the collapse Balfour Beatty and Geo consult implemented the New Austrian Tunnelling Method despite the method having reservations that were grave. This resulted in one of the worst civil engineering disasters in the last century bearing in mind the fact that the Heathrow accident occurred one month after the Munich disaster. The Health and Safety Executive (HSE) took the initiative to warn the two contractors about being cautionary in their approach but contractors failed to heed the advice. Among other general failures, the case proved that there was flawed workmanship, which included serious flaws in the management of construction procedures and contract arrangements that failed to meet the standard requirements. The New Austrian Tunnelling Method (NATM) operated as UK-NATM and had serious failures. To begin with, the method was appropriate for primary lining. This should only apply to temporary works (Feld and Carper, 1997. P. 33). The method does not put into consideration the primary lining while designing the secondary lining. The method takes these steps while it is normal that secondary lining is the second phase and its design should follow the design of the primary lining. The main cause of the problem in the process employed by NATM is that it designs both linings simultaneously. The right process requires that the design should be subsequent. This means that the design of primary lining should come before the design of the secondary lining. The design process should be design as you go. The UK-NATM method allows little room for convergence under the buildings and works concurrently with grouting. The method does not have oversight supervisors and this denies the opportunity for monitoring the appropriateness of the design and gives information regarding compensation grouting. Construction of Heathrow using this method denied the project oversight management hence corrective measures could not
The Heathrow Collapse Name: Institution: Introduction The case filed by the Health and Safety Executive (HSE) against Balfour Beatty and Geoconsult exposed the causes of the collapse of the Central Terminal Area (CTA) at the Heathrow Express Rail Link at The Heathrow Airport found in London…
Jerry Ciacho May 3, 2011 The Reasons for the Collapse of Societies Societal collapse or the decline of empires, kingdoms and societies are inevitable and unavoidable. It has happened from the Chinese and Roman empires and kingdoms to the Mayan societies in Mesoamerica.
Diamond has identified five factors that contribute together in making a society fall down such as Climate change, Hostile neighbors, trade partners, environmental problems and human response against those problems and finally, political and economical factors also play a significant important role in making a society collapse or succeed.
The role of nationalism in the collapse of the communist regime in Eastern Europe has been assessed differently by modern historians. A series of researches on the collapse of the Soviet Union, for instance, have asserted that nationalism played a small part in the end of communism.
In this industrial accident, over 1100 humans died in a factory building collapse (The Economist). However, even as many industries come in to sign agreements which seem to guarantee that they will uphold the security of the workers, there is an increased need for these firms to understand one crucial thing; that is, the security and the safety of works is and will not be determined by the signing of safety agreements.
This can be seen in the numerous countries of Eastern Europe that had adopted the Communist model, in addition to East Germany and certainly the former Soviet Union. Collapse of Communist Rule in Eastern Europe The end of the 1980s was certainly a time of immense change throughout the Eastern block of countries formerly known as the Iron Curtain.
According to Krugman a long term prosperity can only be ensured by a growth in total factor productivity as opposed to the growth in productivity brought about by capital investment. The Mexican Peso crises may lend credence to this argument with the after effect being the loss of confidence in Asian securities and subsequent withdrawal of capital by foreign investors.
The US dollar has been a world standard in terms of foreign exchange rates for decades. This and a lot of other factors clearly highlight how powerful and significant is US economy on a world scale. They also infer how pervasive its effect on the world environment can be.
The paper starts with a strong thesis statement as the author of the book and other materials bring forward. Secondly, the paper will critically discuss the reasons as to why the societies collapsed and then, the paper will provide
This forced the government to raise taxes in order to collect revenue, and this led to inflation. In addition, there was a sharp decline in the middle class. This comprised or artisans and merchants who supported the Roman economy. This