Surveys are very important while carrying out all types of construction and land planning. The various applications of surveys include the plotting of a land and marking of boundaries for planning and ownership purposes, the correct orientation of the building, the leveling of an unduly ground surface, for setting out gradient of a road or field, for marking the center line of the roads, railways and transmission lines, for setting out horizontal as well as vertical curves for various purpose etc. So surveying can be deemed of as the very first step of any type of construction work and it also defines the accuracy of the construction (Schofield and Breach, 2007). Incorrect surveys lead to various complications during the construction because the project drawings are made according to the surveys carried out. Moreover surveys are also very important in the economics of a project because the estimates of a project are based on the drawings prepared through surveying. The various different branches and disciplines of science on which surveying is based include trigonometry, geometry, physics and mathematics (Ghilani and Wolf, 2008). With the technological advancements in all other fields of science, surveying has also been developed and various new surveying instruments have been developed which provide high level of accuracy in work. There are various surveying techniques which have been classified on the basis of the type of land where they can be adopted and also on the basis of the objective of survey. This report elaborates the various tasks carried out during surveying work at Wiston and also explains the use of various instruments which were used for carrying out the various tasks. The major tasks carried out at Wiston provided an idea about the basics of surveys and the use of surveying instruments like theodolite and auto level. The various techniques which were studied and practiced include traversing, which is one the very basic techniques of surveying and involves the measurement of the distances and angles between various points on a close traverse. The setting out of a curve using chords and offsets was also studied and practiced. Chapter 2: Theodolites and Levels The instruments used during the surveying included Theodolites and Levels. The functioning, use and applications of these two instruments is described in this chapter. Theodolite Theodolite is one of the most widely used instruments in land surveying because of
Surveying is the technique used in Civil Engineering for determining the correct position of various points in a two dimensional plane and in the three dimensional space as well…
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