This paper seeks to analyze history of organ transplant, what happens to blood flow and metabolism; the length of time the tissue is available for transplant, size of the tissue in relation to efficacy of the methods of preservation, energy balance at the tissue/organ surface and how this may appropriate particular method, and the methods that are used in conjunction with hypothermia. Introduction Organ transplant is the effective therapy for end-state organ failure which primarily depends on the supply of organs of high quality and efficacy. It was developed in 1960’s based on the functional knowledge by anatomists and physiologists on the requirements of to keep body organs viable and functioning outside the body. Organ preservation on the other hand acts as a logistic aspect to enable conducting of laboratory tests and organization of other clinical activities before the actual transplant (Toledo-Pereyra, 3). Organ preservation simply calls for slowing biological deterioration in organs removed from their normal physiological environment necessitating advancement of methods and approaches to achieve the process. Methods Cooling: This involves reduction of temperatures to inhibit cellular metabolism and requirements for oxygen in a bid to prevent tissue injury. The organs are preserved in a specific solution which in most cases prevent the molecular, cell and tissue changes in a bid to prevent oxidative stress and inflammation/cytokine production which would affect the conditions of the tissue. Hypothermic Machine Perfusion [HMP]: this method depends on activating residual metabolism which greatly relies on energy generation synonymous with the mammalian need for oxygen supply for aerobic metabolism through vascular perfusion. Simple Static cold storage [SCS]: It is associated with preservation for livers, lungs, pancreas or heart with a basic concept of cooling supplemented with use of special preservation solutions aimed at modifying inevitable cellular molecular changes. Discussion In cooling, blood flow and metabolism are suppressed so as to inhibit uncontrolled cellular/ molecular growth before the transplant. This elongates viability of the tissue/organ with respect to time by “chilling of organs” making it the widely used approach in the preservation history. The efficacy of this method depends on the size of the tissue/organ which dictates the maximum time that it can be preserved before the transplant. The energy balance is based on the mitochondrial dysfunction by disrupting its membrane permeability allowing accumulation of calcium, sodium and water within the cell which in turn inhibits uncontrolled growth/destruction of the tissue. HMP on the other hand involves a non-pulsatile blood flow coupled with low/minimal oxygen supply and low temperatures to inhibit metabolic changes of energetic substrates. Uniform myocardium cooling and constant supply of needed metabolic substances, facilitates early post-storage capacity a method that necessitates HMP in the liver transplant. Energy balance on this method relies on the balance of oxygen supply and the aeration of perfusates and the preservation solutions (Hornick and Marlene, 3). SCS involves much of the HMP procedures but differs with the concentration of chilled solutions and
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Name: Institution: Course: Tutor: Date: Abstract Advances in science have sophisticated and integrated today’s clinical services more so on the organ transplantation and other dimensions in the field of health care. This involves application of organ preservation protocols in order to deliver high quality donor organs; through the organ exchange network and matching the most suitable patient with the best available organ to eliminate cases of graft dysfunction and/or ischaemia reperfusion injuries…
Organ transplantation is considered as one of the most significant contributions of medical science to the human race. It is a medical procedure that is defined as the ‘surgical removal of an organ from one person to another person’ which is needed in situations such as organ failure or organ damage caused by illness or injury.
The particular gene is called the protein cystic fibrosis trans-membrane regulator (or CFTR) and people without cystic fibrosis (CF) have two copies of this specific CFTR gene. Only one CFTR gene is needed for the people to avoid CF and this ailment manifests only when both CFTR genes malfunction.
The clinical and experimental transplantation was extensively exploited in the early 1950s and the first two decades of the 20th century. Joseph Murray and colleagues performed the first successful renal transplant in 1954 at Boston, USA. With no effective immunosuppressant therapies, Murray was aware that tissue rejection would complicate matters for the recipient; therefore in order to minimize the chances of rejection Murray performed the transplantation between monozygotic twins.
According to the paper commercial organ trade evolves from being an organ market to market in people whereby – secretly and publicly – the poor and vulnerable people are exploited. Some people suggest that rich people and nations take advantage of poor people and exploit them in the business. Some of the people who engage in this business are those in the low end of the scale of income.
According to the paper organ preservation is the supply line for organ transplantation; preservations of organs for transplant are crucial to ensure effective tissue and organ function while in store to ensure reperfusion function. The preservation methods discussed are found to express multiple limitations thus studies encouraged to come up with more effective preservation methods.
Beneficence principle considers the benefits of treatment versus the costs and harm that will be caused by the treatment; the medical professional should act in such a way that it benefits the patient, the third principle is non-maleficence which states that a medical professional should no harm to a patient.
Organ transplant refers to replacement of a damaged organ or tissue with freshly harvested living organ or tissue. Not all organs are eligible for transplantation. The major organs that are eligible for transplant surgeries include kidney, heart, liver, lung and pancreas.
In this context, World Health Organization (WHO) may be quoted, that is, “organ transplantation is often the only treatment for end state organ failure, such as liver and heart failure. Although end stage renal disease patients can be treated through other
The author states that certain methods of the organ or tissue preservation require dynamic movement of gases and fluids. Hypothermic machine perfusion is one of the traditional methods employed in organ preservation. The application of these approaches aims to enhance the proliferation of oxygen and fluids to the establishments of an organ or tissue.
2 pages (500 words)Research Paper
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