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Engineering and Construction
Pages 17 (4267 words)
Filtration Filtration is defined as the process of separating a fluid-solid mixture whereby most of the fluid passes through a porous barrier which also retains most of the solid particles that are present in the mixture. This porous barrier is known as the filter medium or the septum.
There are several methods through which the filtrate induced may flow through the filter medium. This may be by gravity (hydrostatic head), pressure being applied upstream of the filter medium, reduced pressure or vacuum being applied downstream the filter medium or through centrifugal sedimentation. (b) Filtration mechanism This may be through cake or clarifying filtration. Cake filtration is when the solid gets stopped at the surface of the filter medium where it piles upon one another to form a cake. Also known as depth or filter medium filtration, clarifying filtration is when the solids get trapped within the pores of the filter medium. (c) By objective The objective of the filtration process may be either dry solids or clarified liquid or both. The filtration process may be either intermittent or continuous. When classifying filters, they are first divided into either cake or clarifying filters. They are then classified depending on the driving force and then finally into either batch or continuous classes. Continuous filtration testing and scale up In continuous filtration, it is first assumed that the resistance of both the filter cloth and the filter drainage is insignificant as compared to the resistance of the filter cake. It is also assumed that both specific cake resistance and pressure drop remain constant throughout the filtration process. ...
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