For example, the pressure at the bottom of a dam is equivalent to the ratio of the weight and the area of the column covered by the water. Fluid pressure can be caused by acceleration, gravity or hydraulic systems those results into force thus affecting static fluid pressure. Fluid pressure applies in all directions hence internal pressure of a fluid is equivalent to the external. In this regard, if either pressure is different (internal or external) the object holding the fluid would break. This principle explains the reasons why dams are always constructed thicker at the bottom. The fluid pressure increases as you go deep through the fluid column. The fluid pressure at any point in this case depends on how deep that point is from the surface of the water. If the surface of the water is flat or if the water surface is not tilted to any side, then pressure at point having the same level of depth will always be the same. However, other factors such as can affect fluid pressure. Having described what fluid pressure entails, it is imperative to discuss how this fluid pressure is measured. The theory and principles of fluid pressure measuring Fluid pressure is measured by application of the first principle mentioned in the introduction above that fluid pressure is the force exerted by fluid per unit area. It is also important to note that the intensity of transmission of fluid pressure is equal to all directions. This is expressed in Pascal’s law of pressure Pascal’s law of pressure This law was established by a French Blaise Pascal and states that pressure is exerted and transmitted equally in a confined and non compressible fluid thus the initial variations is always the same (Balachandran 2006, p. 237). In this regard, pressure change at any point of the fluid is transmitted wholly to every point of the fluid. Pascal’s principle is used to derive the equation for measuring fluid pressure and changes in fluid pressure. The following diagram describes how Pascal’s principle is demonstrated by the fact that the fluid pressure at any point is equal in all the directions. Fluid static law The fluid static law states that increasing depth of fluid results into the increase in pressure (Balachandran 2006, p. 238). This law is also referred to as hydrostatic law which implies that fluid pressure is directly proportional to the depth of the fluid The pressure depth equation For static fluids, the pressure p at depth h and weight w of the fluid can be expressed as Pressure (p) = height of the fluid (h) x density of the fluid (w) The above equation describes the formulae for fluids that are standing still thus this formula describe the force exerted per unit area. The above equation can be used to derive the equation for the total force that is exerted by the fluid on a horizontal base. Since the above equation simply tells us the force exerted per unit area, to get the total force, we multiply force exerted per unit area by the total area of the horizontal base. F = force per unit area (wh) x area (A) = whA The above equation is used to calculate pressure especially when a horizontal plate is submerged in water. The above equation gives the total force exerted on the upper face as a result of fluid pressure. However, when such plate is submerged vertically, then, pressure will vary depending on the height of the fluid column. Pressure = Force p = F/A Area over which the force is applied In this
THE PRINCIPLE, METHOD AND APPLICATIONS OF FLUID PRESSURE MEASURING Tutor University Department Date Introduction Fluids refer to any substance that can easily flow such as liquid or gases. Fluid pressure refers to the force exerted on an area and is expressed as force per unit area (Al-Shemmeri 2012, p.20)…
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