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Engineering and Construction
Pages 3 (753 words)
Name Instructor’s Name Course Date Open Channel flow Introduction Open Channel flow refers to fluid flow that is exposed to atmospheric pressure. Examples of open channel flow include Half Full Culverts, streams, rivers, etc. In open channel flow, the pressure on the surface of the flow is assumed to be constant.
Steady flow refers to a flow whereby the amount of water entering the channel is equivalent to the amount of water leaving the channel. Steady flow is divided into two classes, uniform steady flow and non-uniform steady flow. For steady flow to be classified as non – uniform steady flow, the average velocities of the flowing fluid in in successful cross sections of the open channel must be the same. This depend on the cross section of the channel. For steady uniform flow to occur, the cross sectional are must be constant. When the there is a sudden change in the layout of the open channel such as constriction, changes in cross sectional are among others, the flow may gradual or suddenly change. This is non – uniform flow. Non – uniform flows occurs is divided into two classes, gradually varied flows, which occurs in when the change in surface are is small, and rapidly varied flow, which occurs when the change in cross sectional are is large. In most calculation, the flow is assumed to be uniform to determine the properties of the flow. This flow can be represented using several equations. These equations are the manning’s equation, Chezy’s Equation and Darcy – Weiberschh equation. The equations are as listed below respectively. Using the above listed equations, either singly or in combination, flow properties of any channel can be determined. ...
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