The principle behind the prestressed concrete tank is that the compressive stresses induced by the high-strength steel tendons inside a concrete member prior to the loads being applied will balance tensile stresses inflicted in the member during the service. It`s recognized that prestressing eliminates several design limitations and conventional concrete places on load and span and allows the building of roofs, bridges floors, and walls with elongated unsupported spans. With this in mind, architects and engineers design as well as build lighter concrete tanks without sacrificing strength. This principle behind prestressing in concrete tank can be illustrated in a row of books being moved from one place to another. Instead of vertically stacking the books and carrying them, they may perhaps be shifted in horizontal position by putting pressure to the books right at the end of row. Whenever sufficient pressure is applied, the compressive stresses are induced all over the entire row, and so the whole row can always be carried and lifted horizontally at once. This principle has been applied to the design and construction of concrete tank. Concrete water tanks are broadly used in today’s society as a results of the endless need to have potable water easily accessible. Concrete water tanks are used for several purposes such as the storage of potable water, rain water harvesting and even for agriculture irrigation. They are comparatively easy to construct and they have numerous advantages compared to other tanks of different materials such as plastic or steel. Concrete tanks have bigger life spans, they can always be built bigger compared to their counterparts, they don’t taint water and besides, they can always be buried underground. Having a concrete tanks buried underground performs an aesthetic purpose and a practical one since it keeps the water cool. Consequently, the tank will have much less algae growth. A lesser algae growth implies fewer pump problems. Normally potable water tanks are built with prestressed concrete for purposes of durability and water tightness. Literature review As with all sorts of liquid-retaining constructions the fundamental problem of the design is not simply one of securely supporting the load, but is of creating a form that stays liquid-tight under service conditions. Consequently, leakage where it occurs happens more regularly from defects in detail and/or workmanship than from direct result of an inadequate design. In the prestressed cylindrical concrete tank, the enclosed liquid stimulates ring tension in horizontal section and also generally some bending in vertical section. Vertical and Horizontal stressing are applied as obligatory to offset these effects. In a form of this kind, they have the advantage that the central concrete shell is exposed to minimum situations of stress under complete load from the enclosed liquid. The base of the calculations for structures of this sort is simple. However, the application results, in practice, to possible disparity in interpretation. The provided degree of restraint at the wall foot possesses a controlling effect on the allocation of stress in the tank wall. The
Design and construction of a prestressed concrete tank Introduction Prestressed concrete tank did not come out as an acknowledged building material up to a half-century later despite it being patented by an engineer of San Francisco in 1886. The scarcity of steel in Europe subsequent to World War II together with technological improvements in high-strength steel and concrete made prestressed concrete tank a building material of choice throughout European post-war reconstruction…
Design of Concrete Frame based on Iranian Code (2800) and Eurocode (EC 8) for Resistance to Earthquake
Seismic hazard and history of Iran
Iran stands as a common seismic country in the world. In 1976, an earthquake occurred in western Iran that claimed the lives of 15,000 people.
WORKFORCE DESIGN Submitted By Introduction 3 Workforce/Job design Approaches 4 Conclusion 10 References 11 Introduction The alarming rate of unemployment in the wake of current economic downturn has forced us to revisit our workforce design.
Nonetheless, they are still part of the picture for radio and television transmission, telephone calls, telegrams and telexes, and for the transmission of special information like navigation data (NISEE, 1997). History Steel lattice towers have a pedigree of more than a hundred years of operation (Packer and Willibald, 2006).
It starts by examining the stresses which concrete pavements are subjected to. This makes it possible for the weakness of these pavements to be highlighted. The major challenge highlighted here is that of effective load transfer over transverse joints. Transverse joints among other joints are created to mitigate the stresses that concreted pavement are subjected.
This is according to the Market Failure article of 2006 (Ana M, 2006 78). Some of these were reused while others were discarded. The effects of these waste tires are adverse. The discarded tires pile up into huge heaps of waste that are harmful to the environment.
It also ensures concrete durability and aesthetic appearance. To produce self-compacting concrete, the use of fillers, or finest aggregate fraction, has much importance to avoid segregation and ensure satisfactory results. In the mineral industry, from the production of clean aggregate for concrete, there is much use of an excess “dust” or fine material.
650). The frames, which were built by SH Structures Limited, are made from horizontal compression members that are cambered, with internal diagonal tie rods fastened to the keel plate. The plates had been
8 pages (2000 words)Literature review
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