As a result, various industries and other interest groups have hugely invested in nanotechnology researchers as this technology is predicted to be a better alternative to the existing chemical treatments. One of the major issues is that the world has been facing severe water pollution and paucity issues over the last two decades. The existing chemical treatments for water purification have been outdated due to their complexity and higher cost. This paper identifies that nanotechnology is a better alternative to the existing chemical treatments as this technology is more cost efficient and eco-friendly. Contents Abstract Introduction 1 1. Chemical treatments for water purification 2 1.1 Advantages 2 1.2 Disadvantages 3 2. Nanotechnology for water purification 5 2.1 Advantages 6 2.2 Disadvantages 8 3. Discussion 8 Conclusion 10 Reference 11 Introduction Freshwater is essential for human survival and it is a crucial component in many key industries such as electronics, pharmaceuticals, and food. The world is facing potential challenges in meeting the mounting demands of freshwater due to population growth, extended droughts, increased consumption, environmental pollution, and stringent health-based regulations. Hence, in order to meet the growing freshwater needs of a huge global population, new methods of water purification have to be invented. Traditionally, industries have been using a variety of chemical treatments to purify water. Recently, nanotechnology has emerged as an alternative to the traditional way of water purification. To define, “nanotechnology is the systematic manipulation, production or alteration of structures, systems, materials, or components in the range of atomic or molecular dimensions with/into nanoscale dimensions between 1 nm and 100 nm” (Sepeur 2008, p.14). In addition to water purification, the nanotechnology has a wide variety of applications. Major applications of nanotechnology include diagnostics, drug delivery, cryonics, reduction of energy consumption, efficient energy production, nuclear accident cleanup, information and communication applications, aerospace technologies, construction, foods, household, optics agriculture, and sports. While evaluating the nanotechnology developments to date, it seems that this technology will be widely used for water purification in the near future as this method has numerous competitive advantages over traditional chemical treatments.This paper will critically compare the efficiency of chemical methods and nanotechnology in water purification with specific reference to advantages and disadvantages of both the techniques. This paper will also explore the future scope of nanotechnology in water purification. 1. Chemical treatments for water purification Various industries have been using different methods with different degrees of effectiveness to purify water. Main chemical treatments for water purification are coagulation and flocculation, sedimentation, sludge storage and removal, dissolved air flotation, filtration, and disinfection.