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Head Loss Fluid Mechanics
Engineering and Construction
Pages 15 (3765 words)
Head Loss Fluid Mechanics Introduction Fluid flowing in pipes is usually turbulent. The flow is considered turbulent if the Reynolds value is greater than 4000. During the turbulent flow, the velocity distribution is relatively the same (or uniform) and the velocity profile is flatter in comparison to the laminar flow.
Fluid flowing through a pipe encounters resistance because of resistance offered by the pipeline, viscosity of the fluid, and the roughness present in the pipeline’s interior surface. The main energy loss in a pipeline is because of friction as the pipeline has usually long length (Sawhney 2011, p629). The pipeline’s total energy decreases based on the direction of the flow. Fluid flowing through a pipe encounters resistance because of the resistance offered by the pipefittings, fluid viscosity, and the roughness present in the pipeline’s interior surface. Turbulence is generated in fluid flow because of resistance leading to loss of pressure and energy head (Sawhney 2011, p630). The decline in fluid flow energy (generally expressed as units of feet) as the fluid flows through the system is referred to as head loss (Wolf Creek Nuclear Operating Corporation 2004, p2). Head loss in pipeline can be variable head loss due to changing cross-section and constant velocity head loss. The constant velocity head loss occurs because of the kinetic energy loss as the fluid flows out of the pipeline having some velocity at the exit and due to the friction in the pipe. ...
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