Fluid flowing through a pipe encounters resistance because of resistance offered by the pipeline, viscosity of the fluid, and the roughness present in the pipeline’s interior surface. The main energy loss in a pipeline is because of friction as the pipeline has usually long length (Sawhney 2011, p629). The pipeline’s total energy decreases based on the direction of the flow. Fluid flowing through a pipe encounters resistance because of the resistance offered by the pipefittings, fluid viscosity, and the roughness present in the pipeline’s interior surface. Turbulence is generated in fluid flow because of resistance leading to loss of pressure and energy head (Sawhney 2011, p630). The decline in fluid flow energy (generally expressed as units of feet) as the fluid flows through the system is referred to as head loss (Wolf Creek Nuclear Operating Corporation 2004, p2). Head loss in pipeline can be variable head loss due to changing cross-section and constant velocity head loss. The constant velocity head loss occurs because of the kinetic energy loss as the fluid flows out of the pipeline having some velocity at the exit and due to the friction in the pipe. The head loss because of friction occurs because of the resistance given by the pipe’s surface roughness when the fluid layer glides over the pipeline’s wall. It also occurs because of the resistance given by the fluid layers to one another (Sawhney 2011, p630). When the length of the pipe is 500 times larger than its diameter, the pipeline is referred to as a long pipeline. Such a pipeline experiences head loss because of friction as the major loss. Fluid flowing at the exit of the pipeline has a particular velocity, which is the head loss because of the kinetic energy flowing out of the fluid. This is considered a minor loss. Variable velocity head loss occurs because of the variable velocity leading into a pipeline each time a change happens inside the pipeline’s cross-section. For instance, changes in cross-section can occur due to sudden enlargements, many pipe fitments, sudden contractions, and pipe entrance (Sawhney 2011, p630-631). Flow in Pipes (Darcy’s Formula) Henry Philibert Gaspard Darcy (1803-1858), a French scientists made significant contributions to hydraulics. One of his significant contributions was the experimental development of pipes’ pressure-loss formula. Using the equation below (equation 1) one can arrive at the formulation Darcy had. The formula is from friction coefficient formula substituted with shear stress from the definition of Cf. This form of relationship suggests that if the friction coefficient is identified, then the calculation of the pressure drop is possible. Assuming that one is using long circular pipes, can be used instead of where L is the pipe’s length: The above formula can be rearranged to a form that was used several years ago: Generally, the formula is close to that of Darcy’s; however, he made use of the pipe diameter (D) rather than 2R, and a friction factor f as an alternative to the friction coefficient (which is 4 times larger) Using the equation for laminar flow one gets The Darcy’s pressure-drop formula can be written if the average velocity in the pipeline is known: Following the original formula, g was added to both sides of equation. This is generally a one-dimensional model since the average
Head Loss Fluid Mechanics Introduction Fluid flowing in pipes is usually turbulent. The flow is considered turbulent if the Reynolds value is greater than 4000. During the turbulent flow, the velocity distribution is relatively the same (or uniform) and the velocity profile is flatter in comparison to the laminar flow…
These forces have been identified as reducing velocity of objects moving within fluids depending on the size of objects. Various types of drag exist when studying drag resulting from movement of physical bodies within fluids. The different types of drags are as discussed below.
Orifice can have any shape. It can be round, square, oval etc. Also it can be smooth of rough as well. There are a number of applications for this device. Some of which are listed below(Nally, 2013): Used to increase the pressure of fluid line when needed.
The amount of air and water within a sample of soil affects its behavior. The sizes and types of particles that constitute a particular soil affect its properties and thus its load-carrying ability and compressibility. However the soil we find is hardly perfect for any kind of construction before any steps are taken to harden the soil.
The general theory applies to all liquids but since there are a few test data available on open-channel flow of liquids other than water at natural temperatures, it only applies to water. Open channels may be either artificial or natural. Natural water channels vary in size from tiny side-hill rivulets through brooks, small rivers, and large rivers, to tidal estuaries.
ds is built over the fundamental laws of mechanics which relate continuity of mass and energy with force and momentum together with solid mechanics properties.
Hydraulic machines are those machines which convert hydraulic energy into mechanical energy (further converted into
The construction and operation of these hydraulic structures involves numerous socio-economic factors.
Dams and reservoirs are an effective means to trap inexhaustive potential in water resource. They facilitate large storage of water for future reuse.
of water, the rate of discharge for the pipe, in gallons per minute , is
2. A rectangular surface is placed In a vertical position in fresh water with its top and bottom edges horizontal, as indicated in
Fluid mechanics is the study of fluids and the forces behind them. It involves the study of how fluids moves, mix, interact, and the effect it has on human civilization. The fluids include liquids, gases, and plasmas. It
Energy can be said to include all forms of energy within the system. It may be in the form kinetic, heat, light and potential form. Concerning Bernoulli equation as a statement of energy conservation, the sum of pressure, kinetic
The science of Fluid Mechanics is broadly made up of three branches. The branch of Fluid Statics deals with fluid behavior at rest, Fluid Kinematics deals with fluids in motion and Fluid Dynamics with velocities,
5 pages (1250 words)Essay
Hire a pro to write a paper under your requirements!
Win a special DISCOUNT!
Put in your e-mail and click the button with your lucky finger
Apply my DISCOUNT
Got a tricky question? Receive an answer from students like you!Try us!
Let us find you another Essay on topic Head Loss Fluid Mechanics for FREE!