The concept has gone thru series of evolutions, since the birth of knowledge about mixing water, cement, and aggregate. Advent of high performance concrete is the result of this evolution. This research in brief demonstrates different aspects of this remarkable building material and how it has so far served people being an integral part of complex structures. Table of Contents Index Page Introduction 4 Why high performance concrete? 5 Literature Review 7 Purpose 8 Development history of high performance concrete 8 High performance concrete: Concept and exploration 8 Methodology 12 Research approach 13 Analyses 14 Finding and discussion 15 Case study 20 Conclusion 24 Conclusion and recommendation 25 Bibliography 26 Introduction Why high performance concrete? Civil engineering construction uses different building materials. Some are naturally occurring substances, and others are manmade. Concrete is a manmade material using naturally occurring substances. Base material of concrete is water, and cement, while aggregate materials are sand, gravel, crushed stone, blast furnace slag. Base material produces a paste type material in which aggregate materials are bonded. Cementitious binding process of aggregate materials plays a vital role in achieving the end product – concrete. ...
Systematic tests to determine compressive and tensile strength of concrete were performed between 1835 and 1850, along with the first accurate chemical analysis. In 1860 modern composition of Portland cements became available (Inspecting the World n.d.), and since that time concrete has made its rigid step in civil engineering construction as one of the basic building materials. Formation of concrete takes place in two stages; fresh state and hardened state (AboutCivil.com n.d.). Fresh state concrete is plastic, and it flows to produce a given structural form. Hardened concrete attains its full structural strength. As a building construction material concrete’s hardened strength value is used in civil engineering design. Hardened strength value implies concrete's compressive strength. Structural behavior of concrete is to resist compression. Compressive strength of concrete depends on paste strength (water and cement), interfacial bonding (bonding between paste and aggregate), and aggregate strength (aggregate works like bone in the human body). Compressive strength value of concrete made of a specific mixture of cement, water, and aggregate composition is tested at a laboratory. Compressive strength is measured (Concrete in Practice n.d.) by breaking a cylindrical specimen in a compression-testing machine. This test is conducted according to the ASTM C 31 and ASTM C 39 procedure and method. In 1970s, any concrete mix with 28 days age showed compressive strength about 40 MPa was considered to be high strength (berekley.edy n.d.). Residential and light commercial building uses compressive strength in the range of 17 Mpa to 34 Mpa (Portland Cement Association n.d.). Constructions like high-rise building, long
Abstract Every day human life deals with different objects. Some of the objects are nature made, and some are manmade. Both nature made, and manmade objects undergo evolution. Man does not control nature made objects’ evolution. However, manmade object's evolution is the result of man’s curiosity, inspiration and the urge to solve the needs…
The author states that there are several steps involved in the manufacturing process of concrete including material selection and preparation of cement, mixing, and transportation to the site or compacting, curing and quality control. The process of concrete manufacturing follows these steps after which it becomes ready to use for the construction.
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