Having been faced by various divergent perspectives on policies and approaches for dealing with traffic congestions, what kind of recommendation can policy makers be given in order to ensure there are the best possible policy outcomes of transport? Traffic congestions in urban areas takes on numerous faces, takes place in distinct contexts, and is as result of various processes. Due to these reasons, there is no one particular approach to managing traffic congestions; and this paper is therefore is not dictatorial about specific management measures of traffic congestions in urban areas. Nevertheless, there are quite a number of things that policies for traffic congestion management should consider if they are to reduce traffic congestions in urban areas. With that regards, this paper seeks to address traffic congestions in urban areas, its causes, costs and impacts, and management measures and strategies of reducing traffic congestions (Fielding 239). It is very unlikely that vehicle automation or roadway construction will alleviate most major urban traffic congestion in future. ...
ches and compare them qualitatively against different criteria: economic efficiency, effectiveness at reducing congestion, flexibility of access for urgent trips, and income distribution effects. There are also recommendations made concerning measures of capacity-allocation with prospective to increase economic efficiency and to minimize traffic congestion (Laian 178). Introduction Traffic congestion are the incremental costs originating from among road users’ interference. The effects are significant under peak urban conditions in which volumes of traffic approach the capacity of the road. The consequent traffic congestion minimizes mobility and increases vehicle costs, driver stress and pollution. Traffic congestion is considered as one of the primary urban transportation problems, with an annual approximated cost of $100 billion in the United States, comparable to other countries. For example, in 2000, in US metropolitan areas, the average driver endured 27 traffic delay hours, an increase from 7 traffic delay hours in 1980. Traffic delays are noticeably worse than in the United States in many other countries. In developing countries traffic congestion in urban areas is rising with alarming rapidity. For more than 5 decades, economists have been advocating pricing of traffic congestion as the way to manage traffic congestion in urban areas; however, in spite some successes, pricing of traffic congestion is still encountering substantial resistance politically (Paulley 176). Urban centers and traffic have simultaneously developed since the earliest massive human settlements. Similar forces drawing inhabitant to congregate in large cities and urban areas result into intolerable traffic congestion levels on city streets and thoroughfares. An effective governance of
Surname Lecturer Course Date Reducing urban traffic congestion Abstract Urban traffic congestion is one of the primary pre-occupation of urban decision makers. A swift scan of transport planning and policy statements from across cities enumerates the significance of reducing urban traffic congestion to public, road and transport administrations, and elected officials in many urban areas…
It benefits both, those who choose to ride on public transportation and to those who have no other choice that is they do not have their own private cars (private transportation). Basic mobility service is provided to such people through public transit. Public transit modes include buses, trolleybuses, trams, ferries, trains and rapid transit like metro and subways.
A brief background and overview of the congestion problem in the United States will help us to better understand the reasons for congestion and the proper policies needed to address the problem. The growing number of private cars and the rise of the automobile industry as well as innovative designs paved the way for various researches that came up with a number of approaches to traffic flow and traffic jam modeling as well.
While many considered this idea as an “important alternative to prevailing patterns of low-density, auto-dependent land development” (Ellis 261), incredulity and resentment still loom against New Urbanist planning due to its modern approach to urban patterns.
Transport sector increased drastically and with it came problems that the city has to overcome. Most important is the developing of the area into a metropolitan city. Therefore, the city council has been facing with transport problems due to increase in automobiles.
This is congestion further aggravated by the sheer size of the country, which has more than 1.3 billion people. Beijing, the capital city of China, is among the leading urban areas worldwide, with a total pollution of about twenty million people.
Huangpu River splits the city into two. The side west of the river is called Puxi with pudong to the east (Jon, Inge et al,7). Puxi is made up of inner districts such as; The bund, Changing, French concession, Hongkou, Huangpu, Jingán district,
In the end, urban policy and planning remains a politically charged process that can result in shifting priorities with changing administrations in an area. Urban planners, therefore, must be flexible in their approach and be willing
traffic demand is smashing enough that the intersections between vehicles slows the speed of vehicles in the traffic stream, the resultant effect is congestion. However, longer trip times, increased vehicle queuing, and slower speeds can be as a result of existence of many
The author states that the approach of transportation policies allows the respective governments to take major steps over the reduction of traffic cognition in the national landscape. The policies further allow in minimizing the involvement of vehicles in certain locations with respect to the major steps taken to reduce the environmental concern.
15 pages (3750 words)Research Paper
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