Earthquakes trigger one mode of vibration which is the lowest fundamental mode besides higher modes which take place as a result of tremors. 2.1 Development of Seismic Regulations The Building Seismic Safety Council was put up in 1997 as an affiliate of National Institute of Building Sciences. Its main purpose is to promote safety of the public by providing guidelines to construction, designing, planning, utilization and regulation of buildings. It deals with reduction of risks posed on buildings by earthquakes. The main areas which the Building Seismic Safety Council focuses on are structures, kinds of buildings and related facilities. The Building Seismic Safety Council believes that the level of risks vary and therefore has a versatile approach to seismic safety that considers the risk of each region or community separately. It works together with construction industry, governments, non-governmental organizations and public in general to meet its objectives (Housner, 1990). It advocates for earthquake risk reduction measures to be adopted by organizations and institutions. The Building Seismic Safety Council main goals are; to catalyse development of seismic safety, promote use of appropriate seismic voluntary standards, assess implementation of recommendations and find out opportunities for improving regulations on seismic safety. 2.2 Design Seimic Actions Earthquake is a great disaster to lives and economy and there is need for design of buildings and structures which are resistant to seismic actions. The effect of an earthquake can be enormous to the extent that a region may not be able to help itself. Collaboration between architect and engineers in the foundational planning will help bring out an expertise to improve safety. There is lack of structural undertakings to curb seismic hazards in the world. The design of new buildings must be able to significantly counter earthquakes. Most current buildings lack resistance and others even have more vulnerability to earthquakes. 2.2.1 Seismic Zones of Seismicity of Greece Greece experience earthquakes regularly although they are mild and therefore do not cause significant damage. It is an active region with small earthquakes annually. This has made builders in Greece to develop structures that are safe during earthquakes. The neighboring Turkey has less-strict building regulations and small earthquakes normally cause them large damages. Greece faces potential earthquakes from active volcanoes such as Nysiros Volcano. Most of Greece islands also have fault lines align in different directions. Most of Greek earthquakes originate from under seas which shake the surrounding islands. In 1999, the Athens Earthquake affected its outskirts and people killed, others displaced and buildings collapsed. Ancient Greece also faced earthquakes majorly caused by volcanoes (NATO ADVANCED RESEARCH WORKSHOP ON EARTHQUAKE MONITORING AND SEISMIC HAZARD MITIGATION IN BALKAN COUNTRIES & HUSEBYE, 2008). This included the Eruption of Thira and Earthquake of 365. 2.2.2 Ground Seismic Acceleration Seismic waves move in the ground causing vibration of the crust. This energy causing vibration is continually transmitted anything that is attached to the ground including buildings and structures. The structures are damaged since they resist making sudden change because of their inertial forces. The rate of move of speed of seismic waves on the ground is dependent on some factors. These include; the type
Seismic Action and Methods Analysis Name Class Professor Table of contents 2.0 Seismic Action and Methods Analysis Seismic action is a kind of earthquake experienced in an area. The seismic waves occur as a result of sudden release of energy on earth’s crust causing its vibration…
The globalization of human resource management has enhanced the capacity of conventional HRM practices and HR professionals have to take care of employees from the home country as well as from diverse cultures and nationalities. With increasing globalization and the constant shift towards information technology, new issues are being created for HR professionals because employees are becoming increasingly diversified and difficult to manage.
Cross-cultural training- a concept which evolved after the process of foreign employee or the expatriate recruitment- is an inevitable factor of international business. In the present world of globalization, cross-cultural training has become the key concept of any international business.
The objectives of this paper are: to learn about the behavior of RC structures under a seismic load; to conduct a seismic analysis of the RC structures using methods like the Equivalent Static Method, and Response Spectrum Method; to enhance the analysis involving case studies on 4-storey- 3-bay RC buildings with different levels of ductility; to conduct a design check on the structural elements of the constructed buildings
Presently, the size of the company is given in terms of market capacity as 7.4 billion dollars (NiSource Inc, 2012). This market capacity is made up of “a total of 57,717 miles of pipelines and related facilities and serving a market segment of approximately 2.2 million customers” (NiSource, 2011).
Literature Review 7 2.2. Theoretical Framework 10 2.3. Conceptual Framework 12 3.0. Methodology 3.1. Research design 14 3.2. Instrumentation 14 3.3. Reliability and Pilot Testing 15 3.4. Variables Used in the Study 16 3.5. Data Collection Procedure 16 3.6.
It is vital for researcher to have a complete knowledge of all available methodologies and then selecting a methodology that is according to research questions and objective. Current chapter focuses on devising methodology adopted for this research and deciding upon data collection methods including primary and secondary resources.
Classification, Clustering and K-Means Clustering in SPSS In a Knowledge-Based Research Study Table of Contents Part I: Introduction to Classification and Clustering 3 Overview of Classification 6 Overview of Cluster Analysis 8 Hierarchical Clustering 14 K-Means Clustering 21 Two-Step Clustering 29 Part II: Measurement of Proximity 37 Hierarchical Cluster Measures 38 K-Means Cluster Measures 39 Two-Step Cluster Measures 43 Part III: Cluster Analysis With SPSS 44 Conducting the Hierarchical Clustering Process 46 Second Run Hierarchical Cluster 50 Conducting the K-Means Clustering Process 52 Conducting the Two-Step Clustering Process 56 Part IV: Summary 65 Appendix 64 Resources 64 Part I: Intro
Symmetries can also be used to simplify the problems and to understand bifurcations of nonlinear systems. The idea behind this approach stems from the fact that, if discrete invariance group of algebraic equations can be exploited by general algorithms to solve these equations “by radicals”, therefore continuous invariance group of a differential equation may be exploited to solve these equations by quadrature.
According to the report the basic premise of Affirmative Action is that everyone is equal and that all races and classes have equal access to the resources of the country. Therefore, Affirmative Action is a move by Government to affirm and confirm the principles set out in the Constitution of the United States.
5 pages (1250 words)Dissertation
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