Designing an effective and efficient survey network is one of the essential aspects in the implement of field surveys. In contrast, the design of a survey network is a complicated and sophisticated task because a survey network needs to meet or exceed specified criteria for precision, reliability, sensitivity, and cost. Other pivotal factors must be taken into account in a feasible design, such as geological criteria, suitability for equipment measurement, long term safety, field time and access costs (Talaya, et al., 1999). Therefore, it is vital to implement the techniques and instruments of the design of the survey network to deal with a variety of current problems. For instance, deformation monitoring network of dam (Gökalp and Taşçı, 2009), precise levelling of the network (Shahrum and Azhari, 2009), and control the network of construction, have drawn intensive attention for surveyors.
The aim of survey network design is understood as creating an optimal network configuration and observation plan that satisfies the postulated network quality criteria (e.g., error ellipses and redundancy numbers) with minimum cost (Amiri-Simkooei and Sharifi, 2004). In other words, survey network design has two aspects: using the current equipment and condition to imbue the layout of the survey network with a higher accuracy, sensitivity and reliability; the cost of the survey network is the lowest when the network meets the precision, sensitivity and reliability. ...