Burkins and Grasso (2009), state that the engineering fraternity and its multitude of professions and dimensions have engineered structures, chemicals, DNA, materials, machinery and so much more that has been responsible for shaping the current society in to the structure that is seen today. The great revolutions in the fields of industrial and agricultural technology are examples that show how engineering and technology had a greater influence on how human beings lead their lives when compared to the influence of the political and social revolutions of time. New discoveries in preventive medicine and sanitation have led to population explosion as well as its control. Weaponry from the time of arrows and bows to nuclear power and gun powder have also contributed to changes on how wars were fought; in the field of computers, the microprocessor has changed how people bank, shop, run businesses, communicate with other people and conduct research activities. While these are very minor example, there is no dispute that the engineered technologies are responsible for large scale transformations that have contributed to the increase of urbanization in society and developing interdependence of societies worldwide (Ahlgren & Rutherford, 1990). All these changes in the world have been as a result of gradual development of artisan skills in engineering professions which have in turn gradually contributed to scientific knowledge and increased technological discoveries. Most of the technological and scientific discoveries have been a result of engagement in artisan skills of engineering. These artisan skills have gradually led to new discoveries and developments which occurred through empirical observations and regular experimentation. The artisan skills was the main way through which technological and scientific discoveries were arrived at prior to the development of active science skills that could anticipate situations and conditions as well as maneuver situations to achieve results in the experimental field. Practical engagement in various engineering artisan skills has directly led to vast acquisition of engineering experience and the building of a wealth of knowledge which has contributed to greater scientific advancements (Hughes and Hughes, 2000). In fact, most early scientific and technological discoveries were made by individuals who were practically engaging in engineering fields as either professionals or apprentices in their respective roles. It is for this same reason that engineering has always acclaimed practical old world artisan skills as the best mode of development of engineering skills. Prior to the emergence of formal science training and engineering studies, much of the learned skills in all forms of engineering were passed down generations by craftsmen and specialist through apprenticeship programs that attached learners to professionals for a length of time through which they could extensively develop their artisan skills in various engineering practices (Martin & Christensen, 2009). Throughout the apprenticeship period, all of these apprentices would learn their skills through practical engagements that would make their experiences ingrained to their personality as they learned from their actions. It was through the process of apprenticeship that construction skills such as building structures, roads, bridges and many other forms of constructions got developed and passed on to the others. Apprenticeship – Over the years However, with advancement, the mode of learning and engaging in scientific studies the acquisition of
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