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Disaster preparedness in America - Research Paper Example
Author : schustereaston
Engineering and Construction
Pages 13 (3263 words)
This review identifies research and studies that describe the increase in emphasis on terrorism in the prevailing disaster management policies and the three core characteristics of the paradigm shift: the focus on prevention; increased integrations of disaster preparedness, response and management…
The paper tells that prior to 9/11 terror attacks, disaster preparedness has been focused on natural calamities. In the historical account of Haddow, Bullock and Coppola, for instance, it was explained how the series of disasters that happened starting in the 1960s collectively led to the increase in the governmental interest, and the ensuing flurry of measures and initiatives on disaster management. Some of the most important disasters cited were the Ash Wednesday storm in 1962, which devastated more than 620 miles of shoreline in the east Coast, costing more than $300 million in damages, the hurricanes that ravaged Florida and Louisiana in 1965, 1969 and 1972, and the killer earthquakes that rocked the US in 1964 and 1971. The authors noted that these calamities led to the heightened focus on the national emergency management, which by the end of the 1970s saw five federal departments and agencies, closely coordinating for more efficient disaster response and recovery initiatives. Within this period, three specific developments in disaster preparedness emerge. The first is the passage of the Disaster Relief Act of 1974, which saw the US Department of Housing and Urban Development (HUD) taking a more authoritative role in disaster management. Then, there was the creation of the Defense Civil Preparedness Agency, tasked with disasters that would result from military and nuclear disasters. All in all, as pointed out by Haddow, Bullock and Coppola, “taking into account the broad range of risks and potential disasters, more than 100 federal agencies were involved in some aspect of risk and disasters.” ...