Engineering and Construction
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TABLE OF CONTENTS Content Page 1 TABLE OF CONTENTS 1 2 OBJECTIVE 2 3 THEORY 2 4 EQUIPMENT 4 5 MATERIALS 4 6 PROCEDURE 5 7 RESULTS 8 8 ANALYSIS/DISCUSSION 14 9 CONCLUSION 15 10 REFERENCES 16 LAB 3: Water/Cement Ratio (W/C) OBJECTIVE The objective of this experiment is to obtain the relationship between the compressive strength of concrete, water/cement ratio and method of compactness.


Given below is the graph which shows the relationship between water/cement ratio and compressive strength of concrete. It can be observed from the image that the relationship is hyperbolic in nature. Figure 1: Relation between strength and water/cement ratio of concrete The compaction of concrete is the process adopted for expelling the entrapped air from the concrete (Shetty 2010). Higher the amount of air entrapped, lower is the workability of the concrete. Even wet cement i.e. concrete with high water/cement ratio is not favourable because it can cause voids when the water dries from the pores. Compaction thus becomes essential in the process of preparation of concrete. 100 percent compaction is necessary to ensure zero percent voids. There are chiefly four methods of compaction and they are as follows: Hand Compaction – Rodding, Tamping, Ramming etc. Compaction by Vibration – Internal, External, Table Vibrator, Platform Vibrator, Surface Vibrator, Vibratory Roller etc. Compaction by Pressure and Jolting Compaction by Spinning In our experiment, we have adopted hand compaction and compaction by vibration using vibration table. We performed hand compaction by tamping it with a tamping rod and packing the constituents tightly in the mould. ...
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