This paper illustrates that the main environmental problem in the world today is the disposal of waste material. In order to protect the environment, the consumption of natural energy is reduced while the consumption of waste energy is increased. This minimizes the amount of natural resources that is used which in turn helps in the conservation of natural resources. Every construction activity needs a lot of materials. Some of these materials include; sand, bricks, timber and mud. However amongst these materials, concrete remains the most important of them all. With respect to the environment and adaptability, the concrete that is used in any construction must satisfy all the environmental and economical needs of any given area. When we use recycled aggregate for construction then we are able to construct the environment while at the same time minimize the cost used in the construction process. The waste and by products of cement contain almost 75% of natural aggregates and so it is of greater importance as natural aggregates. When we talk about recycled aggregates here we mean; slag, waste from power plants, used concrete, quarrying and mining wastes, waste glass and many more. There are lots of demolished concrete that is left without use in demolished sites as well as construction sites. These concrete wastes provide are the main source of recycled waste that we will look at their strength. Cement (Portland cement) History Portland cement is the main type of cement that is used in making concrete in construction site. Its fine powder is produced by grinding clinker and some limited amount of calcium sulfate. It was developed in the early 19th century in Britain from natural cement. The name is derived from Portland stone, a building stone that was used during the same time. The origin of Portland cement is believed to be from Aspdin Joseph. He was a brick layer from Britain Leeds. One of his employees Johnson developed a production technique which resulted in hard and fast drying cement. The cement also had high compressive strength as compared to other concrete. As days passed, people started to prefer the Portland cement to the roman cement which had been in use for many years. In 1843 Aspin’s son William made a version of this cement which was improved. He named it patent Portland cement though it did not have patent in it. He later moved to Germany to improve cement making and came up with Portland cement. In 1878 the German government gave a standard for Portland cement. Hydration When Portland is mixed with water and it reacts with it, a process called hydration, this mixed with sand and some gravel produces a synthetic rock, which we call concrete. This concrete is very essential in today’s world as electricity and water. During the hydration process, four main types of minerals are always present. They include belite, alite, aluminate, and ferrite. The addition of water causes an exothermic reaction to occur, after this reaction, (C3A) reacts with water forming aluminum gel. This gel in turn reacts with any sulphates in the mixture to form ettringite. The
The research paper “title” highlights an experimental work on the mechanical properties of concrete using recycled aggregates. According to the research findings recycled aggregates have almost similar mechanical strengths as natural aggregates. Therefore they can also be used to make strong buildings. …
This current recession had its roots in the bursting of the housing bubble in the United States. Long before this recession formally started, the housing bubble started to fall apart and the housing prices started to fall. Due to strong connectedness between the United States and United Kingdom, the effects in form of decreasing prices were visible.
The failure of the structure is because of failure of concrete rather than failure of TFC® reinforcement. TFC® is superior in performance and behavior when compared to other reinforcements like mild steel. TFC® is used at places where plastic hinges were to be placed, and this increases the flexural strength, ductility, shear strength, torsional strength and energy absorption capacity of the joints of square columns and beams as also the composite is externally bonded.
The objectives of this paper are: to learn about the behavior of RC structures under a seismic load; to conduct a seismic analysis of the RC structures using methods like the Equivalent Static Method, and Response Spectrum Method; to enhance the analysis involving case studies on 4-storey- 3-bay RC buildings with different levels of ductility; to conduct a design check on the structural elements of the constructed buildings
This investigation compared the performance of SFRC and plain concrete. The concrete was cast as beams and cubes reinforced with different steel fibers at varying ratios, with and without reinforcing bars, and subjected to various tests for examining their flexural and compressive strengths.
RESEARCH METHODOLOGY 17 6. EXPECTED RESULTS 17 7. CONCLUSION AND RECOMMENDATION 18 References 19 1. INTRODUCTION Today’s world is normally faced with several problems; these problems range from environmental problems such as pollution to financial problems such Global Recession and Eurozone.
This is because they are lighter, have higher workability, better impact resistance, and can be easily colored. The physical properties of glass are compared in figure 5.1. Fig. 5.1: Comparison of physical properties of glass and plastics (Weber, 2003). Commonly used optical polymers apart from PMMA and PC include polystyrene (styrene) (PS), polymethylpentene (TPX), polyetherimide (PEI), stryrene acrylonitrile (SAN), acrylic/styrene copolymer, methyl methacrylate styrene copolymer (NAS), polysulfone, allyl diglycol carbonate (CR-39) (ADC), Telfon (Telfon AF® ) (TPFE), acrylonitrile, butadienne, and styrene terpolymer (ABS), amorphous polyamide, and fluorinated-(ethylenic-cyclo oxyaliphatic
Crucial metals like iron, aluminium, gold, silver, copper, lead and tin are in short supply these days. Fossil fuels are non-renewable while metals can be recycled but demand is so great from the fast-growing economies like India and China. Man's technical abilities allow him to produce new materials out of various elements.
The planning process is also to determine the traffic pattern a few miles away from the airport. While approaching the airport during landing, the pilot maintains the appropriate angle by controlling the pitch angle and the glide slope angle (Civil Aviation Authority of New Zealand 2011).
This study looks into the category of plastics, that including those plastics which are different from the six aforesaid types of plastic. These plastics are usually used in food containers and in Tupperware. There are seven different types of plastic identified by the American Society of Plastics Industry.
Family businesses are entities purely owned by members from one family, when two family members, say a wife and a husband create a partnership venture or where siblings team up to start a business venture. The top management of such entities is normally comprised of family members who undertake the daily roles of running business activities.
38 pages (9500 words)Dissertation
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