The paper tells that over the years gradually there have been greater advancements in the various concrete structures and measures that can be applied for the construction of buildings. In the present times, thus, the strength theory is significantly considered in building constructions. Load factors have been found to be necessary for the determination of the concrete structures used for the construction purposes. The strength theory focuses on the ultimate strength design that makes use of inelastic strains thus distributing the stress of loads uniformly. The concept of reinforced concrete was first initiated in Japan during the 1950s. However in the initial times, the use of the RC buildings was not considered as significant, a situation that has modified in the present times. Considering natural calamities like the earthquake, it is essential that the constructed buildings are based on such materials that are capable of resisting such calamities. Ductility or robustness of the concrete structures plays a significant role in this regard. However obtaining the necessary concrete structures might require the application of advanced technologies that at times may be difficult for developing countries to achieve. Reinforced concrete materials are easily available as well as they are economical in nature. Its characteristic stiffness provides efficient support to the constructed buildings in situations of earthquakes. Damages, to a great extent, can be reduced through such measures. (Dowrick, 2009, p.367). Structural Eurocodes represent the technical rules needed to be followed while selection and construction of buildings. There are a number of such Eurocodes of which Eurocode 2 is associated with the design of the concrete structures and Eurocode 8 is associated with the provisions of design for earthquake resistance of structures (Beckett & Alexandrou, 1997, p.2). These Eurocodes are essential for the determination of the ductility of the concrete structures thus enabling the buildings to be tolerant to earthquakes, which is a primary concern of the current study. Thus a general overview on the RC constructions reflect that it is necessary to involve such concrete structures in building constructions for the safety and protection of the buildings from earthquakes that also depend on the ductility of the structure. 1.2. Aim & Objectives: The primary aim of the current study is to learn about the seismic response of reinforced concrete frame buildings with different ductility classes using EC8 and EC2, these being the two of several forms of Eurocodes involved in construction of buildings. In order to conduct the above mentioned study, the following objectives have been set such that a detailed analysis and understanding may be achieved. The objectives are: To learn about the behavior of RC structures under a seismic load To conduct a seismic analysis of the RC structures using methods like the Equivalent Static Method, and Response Spectrum Method To enhance the analysis involving case studies on 4-storey- 3-bay RC buildings with different levels of ductility To conduct a design check on the structural elements of the constructed buildings To make some recommendations while concluding after the study and analysis 1.3. Methodology: The study involves a qualitative research based on secondary sources. Qualitative research techniques do not involve any numerical figures for the study but focuses on a detailed understanding of the concerned topic based on experiences and opinions of different individuals (Creswell, 2003, p.18). Secondary sources are referred to the sources that are not novel but are derived from studies conducted earlier by different authors or experimenters (Hamilton, 2005, p.4). The present study has focuses on secondary sour
The primary aim of the current study is to learn about the seismic response of reinforced concrete frame buildings with different ductility classes using EC8 and EC2, these being the two of several forms of Eurocodes involved in construction of buildings. …
This paper is a literature review of the mechanical properties of concrete using recycled aggregates. But for comparison purposes it first take a look at the mechanical properties of cement concrete and make a comparison between it and the recycled aggregates. The research include the history, hydration of each type of concrete, properties on test and the mechanical strength of each type of concrete.
The failure of the structure is because of failure of concrete rather than failure of TFC® reinforcement. TFC® is superior in performance and behavior when compared to other reinforcements like mild steel. TFC® is used at places where plastic hinges were to be placed, and this increases the flexural strength, ductility, shear strength, torsional strength and energy absorption capacity of the joints of square columns and beams as also the composite is externally bonded.
The main purpose of the research is to present that a beam is the structural member which carries load, which are many times vertical to its longitudinal axis. This kind of beams is generally used when the size of the beam is limited. The notations for detailing in both Iranian code and Euro code are same.
This investigation compared the performance of SFRC and plain concrete. The concrete was cast as beams and cubes reinforced with different steel fibers at varying ratios, with and without reinforcing bars, and subjected to various tests for examining their flexural and compressive strengths.
A mixed methods approach was used that made use of both qualitative and quantitative research methods. The rationale for this approach to research will be explained in more depth in the following sections, however, it was believed that a mixed methods approach had few limitations and would provide a high amount of relevant information.
RESEARCH METHODOLOGY 17 6. EXPECTED RESULTS 17 7. CONCLUSION AND RECOMMENDATION 18 References 19 1. INTRODUCTION Today’s world is normally faced with several problems; these problems range from environmental problems such as pollution to financial problems such Global Recession and Eurozone.
The parameters of seismic action include; type, size and frequency of earthquake affecting a place over a certain time (Pecker, 2007). Seismic analysis refers to investigation of structure response to earthquakes. This helps engineers to properly design buildings especially in areas prone to earthquakes.
Crucial metals like iron, aluminium, gold, silver, copper, lead and tin are in short supply these days. Fossil fuels are non-renewable while metals can be recycled but demand is so great from the fast-growing economies like India and China. Man's technical abilities allow him to produce new materials out of various elements.
It took sky scrapers around four to five decades to prove themselves a worthy trend in the residential as well as corporate sectors and once the trend was established, it did not take long at all for the skylines of major cosmopolitan cities to be pierced by tall buildings.
This dissertation chapter focuses on the building council in Saudi Arabia that is trying to promote and facilitate the practice of green building in the country by increasing public awareness, providing training and needed education on the issue, assisting the industry of construction alter to the specifications and needs of green building development.
11 pages (2750 words)Dissertation
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