Thirdly this gives sufficient space for the main reinforcement to develop full stressing and strength, which consequently prevents slipping of the bars. Lastly a sufficient cover gives a smooth surface which improves the aesthetics of the component as well. 3. 4. Bar codes are on the schedule so that the reader must understand that how the steel bar is is to be bended and what angles and shapes are to be made. In addition to this the reader can easily calculate the length of the bar, and consequently by using the diameter and the type of bar the total weight of the bar can be calculated and finally the total weight of the reinforcement. 5. The cover can be maintained by different methods. One method can be made by placing Metal plastic tipped bar chairs under the reinforcement so that a specified height can be maintained between the bottom surface and reinforcement. Then another method is to give spacer blocks, these can be small marble pieces or concrete plates. Another method used for very heavy reinforcement is the employment of Plastic strip bar chairs. 6. a) coarse aggregate = 122.4 Kg b) fine aggregate = 81.6 Kg c) cement = 40 Kg d) water = 22 Kg 7. Water cement ratio of the concrete is (weight of water / weight of cement ) is w/c = 22/40 = 0.55 SSD or saturated surface dry is a condition of the aggregate when all the surface pores of aggregate are fully filled and there is no excess water on its surface. In addition no more water will be absorbed by the aggregate when immersed in water. This aspect is important because if the aggregate is not saturated then it will start absorbing the water of the concrete which was supposed to be consumed in the hydration of the concrete. If there is less water in the concrete than required the concrete will not acquire the desired strength and the concrete will have microscopic cracks further weakening the concrete and this will also disturb the desired water cement ratio. Then this state helps in finding the absorption value of aggregates and also the specific gravity of aggregate. Lastly the aggregate must be saturated surface dry as the dry surface will help and ensure a good bond between the concrete and aggregate. 8. A clean beam form is important because presence of any loose material will attach on the surface of the beam and when the beam is subjected to bending the concrete around this loose material and the loose material it self will spall off. Hence the cover would be compromised and there is a chance that the steel reinforced will be naked and prone to environment resulting into its rusting and corrosion. 9. The indication of completion of the compaction is that the firstly there is no decrease/ decay in volume or height of the concrete and the movement of aggregates due to vibration in the concrete will very low. In addition the final indication is that the water will come on the surface of the concrete and it must be noted that as soon as the water film appears on the surface of the concrete the vibrator must be pulled out of the concrete or else the concrete will segregate, resulting into separation of cement paste and aggregate. 10. The compaction of concrete is very important for its acquisition of desired strength, In essence compaction is the process in which the entrapped air is released from the
1. The Type R stands as a notation for Plain Round Grade 250 as reinforcing bar. Where as according to BS4449:2005 the other other types include H - Ribbed Grade 500 (this replaces T or Y from older standards) and S - Stainless Steel. These are used in a manner that if it is written R8 then this means that plain rounded bar of grade 250 and diameter of 8mm is to be used…
These environments can be any for instance the column of the bridge comes in interaction to the sea/river water which is corrosive and destroys the steel; therefore the strength of the structure is reduced. Secondly the reason for the cover is that it gives a good finished surface which can be painted and decorated easily.
A region of N or P type semiconductor can be diffused into a block of pure intrinsic semiconductor, or (if the concentration is large enough) can change an existing N-type into P-type (or vice-versa) by providing more sources of holes than electrons.”
This pattern resolution, or the linewidth, is affected by a number of factors, which include amount of dosage, input current and numerical aperture (Rai-Choudhury). By controlling these factors, the linewidth can be adjusted to correspond with the requirements of a given circuit.
project, which will provide a three-storey building (ground and two upper floors) and over 2,300 sq m of space, a mix of multi-purpose areas to accommodate 250 people. The amenities include an administration area (offices), 4 meeting rooms, a performing arts studio, lounge and
The water-cement paste properties are dependent on the cement characteristics and relative proportions of these components. The water-cement ratio is one most important factor that influences the strength of the resulting concrete product.
This experiment is going to use a simply supported beam loaded with three loads. A simply supported beam has both the end free and it can freely rotate. Therefore, the ends of the beam have no bending moments. This experiment
It was possible to authenticate the measurements for this experiment got from the strain gages using the elementary linear beam theory. The elementary linear beam theory helped in computing the respective theoretical strain values. It is recommended that
1 pages (250 words)Lab Report
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