Soil is composed of particles such as silt, clay, gravel and sand and they can also contain other gases that exist in between these particles. The study of soil is very important because this is what makes the study of geotechnical engineering possible. This is a subtopic in civil engineering and it is a very complex topic. Soil mechanics is applicable in many ways as far as building and construction is concerned and some of the best examples are such as building foundations of bridges, dams and sustaining systems of buried pipelines. This is very important because it ensures that buildings do not fall apart easily in the modern world and this contributes a lot to the development of different cities world wide. The study of soils is also very important because it contributes a lot to good agricultural products. Many areas of engineering depend on soil mechanics and some of these areas are such as coastal engineering, geophysical engineering and hydrology among other areas. One of the best ways of approaching the topic on geotechnics and drainage is through understanding the composition and genesis of soils. This is one of the best examples of a diagram that clearly defines the formation of soils as far as volumes of water, air and solid is concerned. The V?, V?, and Vs represent the amount of solids, air and water present in a specific mixture of soil. W?, W?, and Ws in the diagram above stand for the weights of solids, air and water within a soil mixture and M?, M?, and Ms stand for the masses of water, solids and air found in a mixture of soil. The formulae for calculating the weights of all the named particles present is Mass multiplied by the acceleration of gravity which is; Ws=Mg. Types of Triaxial Tests There are several types of triaxial tests but the most common ones are; Consolidated Drained also known a CD, Consolidated Undrained tests which is also referred to as UD and Unconsolidated Undrained. In the consolidated drained or CD, the test is done through consolidating and shearing while compressing it with the drainage. In the second type of test, the sample is not drained and in the third type of test, the sample is constantly compressed. This is an example of soil horizons from www.wikipedia.com . A; can be referred to as the colluviums or top soil, B; is the Residual soil that is mature and C; is weathered rock. In most cases, soil deposits become affected by how they are transported to the specific location where they can be found. Understanding the formation and deposition of soils makes it quite easier and understandable especially when it comes to dealing with geotechnics calculations. Clay is composed of several minerals that form structures that look like a sheet which have a length range of 10 x 10 ?7 and 4 x 10?5 and its thickness ranges from 9 x 10?9 and 2x 10?6 and their surface area is large. Through understanding the formation of soils, one can easily understand how different stresses and shears are formed in different phases on a normal circumstance and all this is part of the study of geotechnics (Chen 2010). Stress strain curve diagram. Looking at the curve above, one can easily predict the stability of the soil by measuring the shear strain against its shear strength Cell pressure kN/m2 Deviator stress kN/m2 kN/m2 2 (a). Normal and Over- Consolidated Stratum Normally consolidated stratum is one which is very dense and packed tightly as one goes deep the strata. An over-consolidated clay stratum is one which occurs when water is squeezed out of the ground with
Running Head: GEOTECHNICS AND DRAINAGE Title: Geotechnics and Drainage Name: Professor: University: Date: Geotechnics and Drainage In geotechnical engineering the techniques of site investigation for soils are well established and so is the topic on soil mechanics…
Longest span is at 15.0 meters. The ground floor plan illustrates the configuration of the beams and columns supporting the ground floor slab. The lecture rooms and exhibition space are only framed by the columns externally. There are 18 footings in all. In this scheme, piles are used to support the foundation or pile cap.
The amount of air and water within a sample of soil affects its behavior. The sizes and types of particles that constitute a particular soil affect its properties and thus its load-carrying ability and compressibility. However the soil we find is hardly perfect for any kind of construction before any steps are taken to harden the soil.
The general theory applies to all liquids but since there are a few test data available on open-channel flow of liquids other than water at natural temperatures, it only applies to water. Open channels may be either artificial or natural. Natural water channels vary in size from tiny side-hill rivulets through brooks, small rivers, and large rivers, to tidal estuaries.
Lack of adequate guidelines for evaluation of the significance of contaminated sediments creates problems for environmental managers. Groundwater is water that is found underground in cracks and spaces in soil, sand and rocks. The area where water fills these spaces is called the saturated zone.
of water, the rate of discharge for the pipe, in gallons per minute , is
2. A rectangular surface is placed In a vertical position in fresh water with its top and bottom edges horizontal, as indicated in
Elevation of the ground’s site was measured to lie between 52m and 64m as shown on MAP1. To ensure more control, a trial pit of 60cm X 60cm X 60cm was excavated with coordinates of N 530 3.617 and W00 57.670. The day’s weather was very appealing as there