Firstly it would be Infiltration trenches and the second will be Detention Basins. Infiltration trenches This is a system in which a trench is made and filled with artificial layers of granular material/aggregates which are clean and dry and then this is used in combination with geotextile. These granular materials have voids which are used to trap water and retain it for some time. Where as geotextile material prevents from clogging and durability. The Granular material should be 50 mm clear stones. Then the materials are layered in the manner shown below. There are some conditions for its construction. Almost of the trench is underground and hence its maintenance will be expensive. The trenches are constructed at least 1.5m above the maximum groundwater level and it should be at least 5 m away from the foundations or buildings lines. It is used in areas where the silt/clay content is not more than 40 %.It is made in areas with type A and Type B soils. It should not be constructed near septic tanks or water supply line and the areas near it should have good house keeping, if it is not done it will result into choking of the voids that retains waters. Then to improve the life and decrease the maintenance of the trenches it should be provided with Leaf screens, Vegetated filter strips or grass swales and similar devices such as grit separators, goss separator etc. Then these trenches are designed with an impervious drainage area to treatment facility area ratio of between 5:1 and 20:1. Therefore its is clear that the land take is very less and this option will be suitable where areas is less such as commercial areas. Where as the maintenance of the trenches are done by cleaning out leaves, debris and accumulated sediment caught in pretreatment devices, inlets and outlets annually or as needed. If this is not done on regular basis then the trenches will choke and then a complete overhaul needs to be done which is costly. Normally the trenches’ material is replaced in 5 years. Although the cost of construction is low but the maintenance cost is high and needs to be repeated. Then in this type of system when the water passes through the layers of the trenches the solid particles are filtered and the geotextile improves the process. Eventually the quality of the water is improved but the water does not provide microbiological purification. Concluding the merit of the system are that they require less space, the improve water quality, have less construction cost, reduce the runoff during rainy season and reduce the erosion that might occur by heavy rainfall and its runoff. Where as the demerits are that the maintenance of the system is high and repetitive, the system doesnot purify biologically. It cannot be made in areas where underground services are present. These systems are not used in high slope areas. It is ineffective in areas where soil is contaminated and polluted. It looks the worst when the system is choked as the water stays and do not drain. Detention Basins As the name indicates this system impound water in an excavated area or basin. Primarily this is used in areas where there is heavy rainfall and frequent flooding. These basins are used in reducing peak storm water discharges, controlling floods and preventing downstream channel scouring. There are two type of detention basins dry detention basin (storage is for specified short time) and the other is extended detention basin (used for retention for
Due to increased urbanization the green lands are now converted into grey paved areas. Resulting into decrease in water percolation into soil and increase in run off of water into the rivers, which the rivers cannot afford causing flood, immense erosion, deepening the riverbeds and destroying the habitat…
The technology relies on the intensity of sunlight to heat water and therefore more reliable in regions receiving more sunlight. In smaller scales, people use the technology in heating swing pool water and other hot water needs in residential apartments and hotels.
Table of contents Abstract: This paper sets out to examine the causes of acid mine drainage of a site under investigation-a long-abandoned coal mine. The analyses of the samples collected were done to ascertain the alleged source of the river contamination.
This paper recognizes that AMD is one of the environmental threats in the offing as most of the economies are hinged in the process of mining’s that contributes a huge chunk of income to the struggling economies of any states in the world.
There are factors that control the shapes of a hydrograph. According to Weyman, 1975 there are different shapes that are shown and the main components are labeled. The components of a hydrographs are the rising limb, the falling limb ,the peak discharge and the lag time.
The myriad variables of "supply catchments, reservoirs, water consumption, stormwater systems, wastewater systems and receiving waters (rivers and bays)" all need to be carefully considered when designing a sustainable urban water system
nt area, river flow measurements, base flow and lag times is gathered through various sources such as satellite imagery and a network of stream gauges.
Hydrograph analysis involves the study of runoff records at a stream gauge, river discharge after a rain and drainage rate of
ainfall is quantified as lag time which shows the time difference between the peak rainfall and the peak discharge in the river corresponding to that rainfall. Thus the rivers that have relatively short lag time respond very quickly to rainfall and hence can be considered as
The hydrograph presented in Figure 3 shows the rainfall data observed for the River Cynon catchment in the form of vertical bar graphs and river height data in a line graph. Rainfall and river height were plotted along the
The modern day problem requires a sustainable drainage system which can tackle with both the quantity and quality of water and at the same time should not have adverse effects on the biodiversity. For this purpose several techniques have been devised
A comparison between the analysed levels of the pH of the site to determine the source of contamination based on the Acid generating Potential and the Acid Neutralizing Capacity (ANC) which is calculated directly by adding acid to a slurry of the spoil
4 pages (1000 words)Essay
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