Water is essential component of concrete because it gives the concrete the required fluidity which helps in pouring concrete in the various forms of constructional shapes and for fabricating structural members of various sizes, more importantly water is required for the hydration of cement. The cement and thus the concrete gets the desired strength after the process of hydration in which the cement react chemically with water and physically with the aggregates to form a strong and homogeneous stone-like mass of concrete. Concrete has a very high compressive strength due to the presence of crushed stones and aggregates of high strength; however its brittle nature makes it a very weak material in tension. This is the reason concrete has to be reinforced by using other materials which are strong in tension in situations where the structural members is also subjected to tension in addition to compression. The most widely practiced reinforcement is done by steel bars embedded in concrete for resisting tension. Sometimes it is also reinforced with bricks and reinforcement of concrete with fibers is the most modern method of reinforcement. Concrete is extensively used in construction of all types of buildings and all parts of a building varying from high rise multi-storey buildings to simple framed structured houses, from bridges to swimming pools and water tanks, from roads to monuments; thus concrete finds applications in all types of architectural and structural construction. Concrete is being used by man for construction since ancient times and Ancient Romans widely used this in construction. Concrete technology remained passive for a long period of time before its revival in the 18th century. The concrete used by Romans utilized lime as the binding material and pumice stone was used as aggregate. The discovery of concrete allowed Romans to construction magnificent structures including the hippodrome, coliseum, baths, aqueducts, ship bridges and the great temples such as the Pantheon. These structures allowed the Roman civilization to achieve remarkable progress in the fields of commerce and industry, technology, social welfare and culture (Nawy, 2009). The ancient civilizations that used concrete were also aware of the uses of additives in concrete. Romans used horse hair in concrete for giving it strength against cracking. Similarly blood was also used as additive in concrete for giving it frost resistant properties. Today various additives are added to concrete for giving it special properties as per the architectural or situational requirements. Canal du Midi constructed in 1670 in France is regarded as one of the very first structures built from concrete. Concrete structures dating back to 16th century are also found in Finland. These concrete structures of the medieval period utilized quicklime as binding material and brick powder as the filler material. Engineers and Architects started using Portland cement in concrete by the middle of 19th century. Recycling of concrete is possible and is being carried out in the construction industry these days in order to minimize the high environmental impact of concrete. Concrete has a very high thermal mass and thus it can absorb heat energy and radiate it at the required time, this property of concrete makes it very effective to be used in energy efficient buildings. The various admixtures added in concrete include accelerators (calcium chloride, calcium
Concrete as a Building Material: Issues and Practiced Solutions Concrete is a construction material which consists of a binding material, a filler material and water. The commonly used binding material is cement and the filler material consists of aggregates coarse as well as fine aggregates…
Drawings C. Calculations D. Appraisal Report 1.0 Objectives The objectives of this project are as follows:- To get an engineering real experience in life and in this way exposing one to the real work of structural analysis and design (Alheyad, 2008). To gain competence in structural elements analysis and design of multi-storey buildings Familiarization with the software of the building structure such as AutoCAD and SAFE 2.0 Introduction The project is a multi-storey office building intended for construction at Uxbridge Business Park which is adjacent to Uxbridge town centre.
However, following the rising population pressures on the available resources, these resources are the brink of depletion and exhaustion are they are being consumed by at prodigious rate by the mankind. Some of the natural resources that are highly threatened include trees, wildlife, fertile soil, and fossil fuels.
Even with all its good intentions Starbuck’s faces an even more complex set of problems with respect to corporate responsibility. It grew up based on a paradigm of corporate social responsibility that has made it so profitable as to create a unique new set of market issues with respect to its corporate success.
to fire amount to millions of pounds each year in the UK, the importance of fire safety in relation to building design and construction can never be over-emphasized. Lives and properties are of utmost importance that is why research and policy makers are pushing for development
The ultra high performance concretes have been utilizes in innovative structural solution, owing to their behaviors such as flexibility and unique combination.
Amongst the new types of concrete developed in the past twenty
To achieve such objectives, the report identifies the problems facing the Riverslake Housing Association by providing possible solutions to problems such as the provision of examples of good practices as seen in other similar organizations. Such solutions and examples are then applied within the SMART Plan section to formulate possible recommendations.
nt in the sector as it is meant to ensure increased income collection which is subject to the comfort of tenants among other stakeholders (Lister, Perry and Thornley, 2007). Riverslake Housing Association is one of the leading property management agencies in the country.
produced globally, which produces a large amount of carbon dioxide together with other green house gases into the environment, which leads to global warming. In recent years, worldwide concerns on climate changes have led researchers and scholars to find methods to minimize CO2
There are complaints everywhere that the management no longer listens to employees’ complaints. Employees feel they are no longer valued and are threatening industrial action if their demands are not met. These problems can be solved simply by fixing the