Separated & Cooperative System
This system is one of the most widely used system where each party of the project namely client, designer and contractor are different and work separately. In this system each party completes it work and then project is transferred to next sequential predecessor. The system initiates with a feasibility study then detail design, tendering, contracting for construction along with construction supervision. The main advantages include the fact that it is one of the most practiced systems that’s why there are lesser problems encountered and general protocol procedure have been developed and well versed in case of problem. Another advantage of the system is that every aspect is done by an expert, hence every drawing, design and detail is developed to its maximum. Hence this produces a high quality of work done. The figure below shows each process that exists in a traditional procurement system.
The disadvantage is that the system requires a lot of input and attention of the client, as his involvement in each step is detrimental. In addition due to the sequential nature of the system, extra time is required and wasted while transition from one step to another, as qualification and bids invitation for each party has to done for each step. Hence a variation is made in the systems processes which are now called as accelerated system, where feasibility, detail design, tender documentation and construction supervision, all the three works are given to single consultant. The whole construction process is assigned to single contractor, who selected from a prequalified contractors list. As a quantity surveyor I believe the system is well established and all system bugs have been eliminated. This system has better cost control as the client has to pay and perform the whole project piece by piece. But the time consumed is more hence the cost increase with time due to price escalations. In my understanding, the system can be improved if the strong effective timeline of the project is created in the planning phase which will highlight the key dates of transition of different phases and review the whole timeline for free floats and critical activities to optimize the time allocation. An accurate time allocation can be only done if the correct quantity of work is known. 2. Integrated Procurement System The reason for creation of this system was to eliminate the disadvantage of the traditional procurement system. Rather than having several parties engaged in single project, in integrated procurement system the complete project is assigned to one firm that means the firm has to design as well as construct the project. The “Design & Build” system is comes under this procurement system. The starting process of this system is that a client gives an invitation to EPC (Engineering procurement construction) firms for a project and then these firms submit the technical and financial proposal for both design and construction. In addition the contractor along with consent of the client generally come into contractual bidding of completion of project with a certain agreed duration and in a negotiated price normally lump sum. There are some modification made to the integrated procurement systems which have resulted into newer and efficient systems for both the client and the contractor. The first among which is the “Turn key” project type. In this system the client will be handed over the keys