This paper focuses upon corrosion as an essential process. It is one of the many ways in which nature recycles its contents. Kamis indicates that it is the destruction or deterioration of materials as a result of reaction with the environment and involves the electrochemical conversion of metals to its original form. Though the process of corrosion cannot be prevented, the rate at which it takes place can be reduced. Kamis in the article entitled “Cost of Corrosion” indicates that corrosion affects all materials, whether they are metal or non-metal. Chromate coating is a process that is used to reduce the rate of corrosion. Zhao et al indicates that it is a widely used method especially for A1 alloys in aerospace applications as it is considered to be very effective. However, Zhao et al points out that a number of factors including environmental regulations; the requirements for increased service life of airplanes; and the high cost of preventative maintenance has forced the US Air Force to search for other environmentally friendly methods of reducing the rate of corrosion that are also an improvement over the use of chromate. Zhao et al also indicates that an understanding of how CCCs protect metal surfaces against corrosion is fundamental to any research. As Kamis points out a proper understanding of corrosion along with the appropriate engineering application would lead to a major reduction in its damaging effects as well as the costs associated with it. 2.0 Factors influencing chromate replacement There are a number of factors that have contributed to the need for replacing chromate as a coating. They range from environmental concerns which have led to regulations governing the quantities of chromium that is included in certain processes. Additionally, the need to increase the service life of assets means that the replacement required should be able to exceed the level of protection that chromate provides. Furthermore, it needs to be a cost effective technique that will facilitate cost savings in situations where the cost of corrosion preventative maintenance is considered too high. 2.1 Environmental Regulations The National Center for Manufacturing Sciences (NCMS) in their report – “Alternatives to Chromium for Metal Finishing” points out that the need to find alternatives to replace chromium has been mainly influenced by the effects on the health of humans as a result of exposure to hexavalent chromium which is considered to be a cancer causing agent in humans (1.1). In fact, Pellerin and Booker in their article “Reflections on Hexavalent Chromium: Health Hazards of an Industrial Heavyweight” indicates that from as early as the 1920’s people who worked in the chrome ore industry in Germany were found to be developing cancer at a rate that exceeded that of the general population (A402). Additionally, people who worked in areas where industrial processes were being carried out suffered from higher rates of both lung and nasal cancers (A402). Therefore, NCMS sees it as no surprise that there are concerns relating to high exposures of the substance in the workplace and the environment generally. NCMS points out that various concerns have led to a number of consequences including: i. increased liability associated with claims for both exposure at the workplace and environmental exposure; ii. increases in the cost of tracking inventories, monitoring and controlling emissions, reporting the use of compounds that consist of chromium, as well as the disposal of waste which contains chromium; and iii. strict rules and regulations relating to the limits for discharging dissolved chromium in waste water (1.1). Kermani and Harr (8) indicate that if corrosion is left unchecked other health and safety issues arise. If plant and equipment are not maintained then the integrity of plant and equipment as well as their serviceability. This will result in leaks and discharge of flammable
This research is being carried out to evaluate and present Chromate Conversion Coating replacement; factors influencing chromate replacement; environmental regulations; requirements for increased service life of assets; high cost of corrosion preventative maintenance and so on…
Tragic and disastrous accidents recurrently leave a complicated trail of human and mechanical errors. A lot about human performance and system functioning can be studied in hindsight by having panels of experts examine the accident sequences; reviewing them and the incidents that triggered them can lead to a clarification of the origins and identification of what actions went wrong
One is the ability of the resource to be replenished; next is the presence of factors, phenomenon or actions that causes the replacement of these resources. Example, recent discussions on renewable supply center on the sun being a source of tremendous energy; however scientific data revealed that only a fraction of the sun’s energy can be exploited for human consumption.
the country’s coast line is 3,260 kilometers. The terrain of the country is characterized by a low, flat delta in the north and south. In the central part of the country are highlands and the far north and northwest pat for the country is mostly hilly and mountainous.
Hip replacement is one of the most successful and cost-effective interventions in medicine (Crawford and Murray). It effectively provides pain relief and improved functioning of the hip joint in patients suffering from inflammatory or degenerative arthritis (joint inflammation).
This has led to increased demand of goods and services. Because of this, many technologies and applications have been invented to cater for this increased demand. Among the technologies that have come up is nanotechnology which deals with resizing large systems and devices as well as making effective products highly.
The concepts of nanotechnology have seen production of many efficient materials that bring huge economic, environmental and sociological importance. Over long time, there has been intensive research to develop techniques to solve various problems as well as improve the living conditions of human beings.
It effectively provides pain relief and improved functioning of the hip joint in
The hip joint is a ball-and-socket joint made by the articulation (contact) of two bones – the femur and pelvic bone. The femur consists of a long shaft, and a ball-shaped end
Although the movement’s inception dates back to early 19th century, its peak was from 1950’s and 1960’s. African-American people along with white people led movements at both National and local level pursuing their goals
o deliver innovative design, advanced safety features and environmental-friendly automotives while minimizing the cost of production, use of ceramics looks set to grow. At the moment, ceramic is used in nearly fifty different automotive uses and the list continues to soar
8 pages (2000 words)Term Paper
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