Conceptual Configuration 1.1 Liquefaction Cycle Liquefaction allows gas to be stored economically. Propane Precooled Multi-Component Refrigerant Cycle (Carson’s Report, pg 221) will be used to create the LNG from the natural gas feed. This process also known as the C3-MR system is used widely in today’s LNG industries. This system uses a multi-component refrigerant, usually nitrogen, methane, propane, butane, ethane and pentane to condense and evaporate natural gas in one cycle over a wide range of temperatures.( http://books.google.com.au/books?id=b14hnWUAOPYC&pg=PA115&lpg=PA115&dq=propane-precooled+multi-component+refrigerant+cycle&source=bl&ots=NyBe3x3X2H&sig=lGG5YDOJ9TkF_ntOmXjcG2Es2Fc&hl=en#v=onepage&q=propane-precooled%20multi-component%20refrigerant%20cycle&f=false) 1.2 Storage Facility In this section we will show our storage facility by calculating the storage capacity needed (table 1.2.1), studying the current LNG storage tanks and their capacity and choosing the appropriate facility for our project. Storage Capacity Number of Flights per day 14 Usage per Flight LNG Density (kg/m^3) 455 Weight (kg) 26043.97 Volume(m^3) 57.23949 Usage per Day LNG Density (kg/m^3) 455 Weight (kg) 364615.6 Volume(m^3) 801.3529 Needed storage capacity per day (m^3) LNG 801.3529 Annual Storage Capacity (m^3) LNG 292493.8 Table 1.2.1 Storage Capacity Calculation LNG is a cryogenic liquid. The term “cryogenic” means low temperature, generally below -73°C. LNG is a clear liquid, with a density of about 45% that of water. The LNG is typically stored in double-walled tanks at atmospheric pressure. The storage tank is actually a tank within a tank. The annular space between the two tank walls is filled with insulation. The inner tank, in contact with the LNG, is made of 9% nickel steel, suitable for cryogenic service and structural loading of LNG. The outer tank is generally made of carbon steel or prestressed concrete. 1.3 Processing Facility This stage includes the requirements to sub-cool LNG prior to the loading into the aircraft fuel pods. Lng needs to be sub cooled to -161 degrees Celsius for it to remain in the liquid form. 1.4 Distribution Facility Our distribution facility will include pipings, pumps and hydrants required to deliver LNG from the storage tanks to the aircraft. Pipeline System As the liquefaction and storage facilities are within the airport boundary, the pipeline costs will be lesser than that of distribution and transportation through trucks. Sizing requirements to meet the distance from the storage tanks to the aircraft. To be able to simultaneously fill 2 aircrafts at one time. Under the ground (trench covered by open grating) to prevent heat penetration. Pipeline insulation by thick polyurethane to prevent heat infiltration. 2. Ground Systems Operating Procedure The primary operations that will be considered in this section: Receipt of gas for liquefaction Liquefaction Storage Delivery of LNG In our project, we will be receiving liquefied natural gas, which will eliminate the process of liquefaction. The reason for such an arrangement would be that the amount of LNG usage for our operation does not require a facility to produce LNG with a natural gas feed. Also, costs are not feasible to create a natural gas feed at the airports. With this, we move on to the
LNG In this part of economics, we will elaborate on the insulation and use of LNG as an alternative fuel for our aircraft. We will assume that the feed gas (natural gas) is available at both the airports, Perth and Melbourne. We will begin with the conceptual design of our ground system with the following breakdown: 1…
LNG & LPG vs. Kerosene in Fueling Aircrafts The aviation industry has really grown with the industrial revolution, economic growth, and growth in air travel demand. The recent growth in computer technology, innovation of more complicated machines, and the discovery of many energy resources has a contributing factor to the aircraft industry.
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According to the U.S. Federal Highway Administration, the average vehicle (car or light truck) on the road today emits more than 600 pounds of air pollution each year (Durbin et al, 2000). These pollutants (such as carbon monoxide, sulfur dioxide, nitrogen dioxide, and particulate matter) contribute to smog and too many health problems.
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This papers reviews the latest technology used for maintaining the aircraft and how maintenance has change to adopt the latest technology advances. Closing with the future of aircraft maintenance.
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Then there is the anecdote told by Joseph Stocker as to why DC-3 is called the Whistling Willie:
Jap strafers caught a DC-3 on the ground and riddled it with machine gun fire. Coolies patched up about 1000 holes with pieces of canvas. Then it took off for India with 61
It should be noted that production of electricity by thermal plants is not a very efficient method and is a major source of pollution. In such plants, the chemical energy (heat of combustion) of fossil fuels (coal, gas or
Propane Precooled Multi-Component Refrigerant Cycle (Carson’s Report, pg 221) will be used to create the LNG from the natural gas feed. This process also known as the C3-MR system is used widely in today’s LNG industries. This system uses a
The second section in the working drawing is the Assembly Drawing (Faa, 2001, p. 2). The section describes an object made up of at least two sections. It describes the general shape and size of the object. It shows the relationship that exists
The author of the text comments on the peculiarities of fuel cells. Notably, all fuel cells contain an anode, the positive electrode, a cathode the negative electrode and an electrolyte-a liquid that allows charges to move between the two sides of the fuel cell. And this electrolyte has to be in liquid form to reduce hydrogen molecule leakage via the container’s walls.
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