According to the research corrosion in offshore pipeline environments is a critical and unresolved issue for oil and gas industries. Due to the nature of subsea facilities and infrastructures, corrosive processes are more abundant and varied than their onshore counterparts. The maintenance and monitoring of such problems is also more expensive given the challenges of access and context of the location. The aggressive nature of sea environments leads to pipeline systems becoming vulnerable to corrosion from various internal and external forces such as chemical reactions induced by seawater composition. Currently there are several techniques used by oil and gas industries to combat offshore corrosion. Corrosion resistant alloys are often used to prevent corrosion, as well as certain pipeline coatings and cathodic protection of pipelines. Offshore monitoring is often executed as a preventative measure, via electrical resistance monitoring, electrochemical methods, hydrogen monitoring, weight-loss coupons, non-destructive testing techniques and analytical techniques. Offshore pigging is also a common practice. Researching and investigating case histories is a crucial way in which industries may improve their knowledge of corrosion protection techniques. Overall, there are many diverse methods, various apparatuses, several technological platforms and a wide spectrum of concepts involved in preventing, combating, managing and monitoring corrosion in offshore pipeline environments. However, these measures alone do not guarantee corrosion protection. Further research and experimentation using cutting-edge technology must be used in order to fully mitigate this issue. Table of Contents 1. INTRODUCTION....................
The purpose of this paper is to describe relevant issues and concepts about offshore pipeline corrosion. The report also examines the methods and environmental factors relating to the subject as well as the chemical, biotechnological and mechanical apparatus involved…
This paper deals with the subject of oil drilling in the US. Environmental regulations are being outlined, and the latest governmental guidelines and reports are being analyzed. As the reports are based on the changing results of assessment of oil drilling’s environmental impact, there are also introductory remark about drilling procedure and conditions in this paper.
Very often corrosion results in the formation of oxides and salts and the overall physical properties of the materials affected by corrosion are changed rendering the material useless in most of the cases. The major types of corrosion are discussed in the following paragraphs.
Bush, later in 2008. This was due to gasoline prices thwarting and the cost of oil that became a significant question in the presidential race and American politics. While an aspirant, Barack Obama preferred a much more modest launching of the coastal regions than his rival, John McCain did, whose motto was “drill it here, drill now” (Franklin 6).
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(DME: 1) The holes (or pits) often range from deep cavities of small diameter to relatively shallow depressions. The deterioration which penetrates a significant part of the wall thickness sometimes leaves large parts of the metal surface virtually free and unaffected (DME: 1).
As the profit margins are heading southwards, multinational corporations around the globe have started looking for locations where they could shift some of their non-strategic jobs in order to cut costs. China, India, Philippines, South Africa, Thailand, Russia, Poland, Mexico, Indonesia, Vietnam etc.
reasonable energy prices for more than 70 years, and once again the debate over exploiting our offshore energy reserves is at the forefront of our politicians’ minds. Fortunately, environmentalists are still holding off actual exploitation, but academia, popular media, and
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