Literature review
Engineering and Construction
Pages 12 (3012 words)
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1.1.1 Background Pneumatics technology has been of remarkable importance in work-place rationalization as well as automation from the old fashioned manual works to the use of modern machines and robots (Majumdar, 1996). This medium has been made suitable for use in modern manufacturing and production plants by various characteristics of compressed air (Blaine and Binder, 2005).


Pneumatics is defined as the study of gases and air and the relationship between their volume, temperature and pressure (Venkannah, 2006). Pneumatics as a discipline deals with the mechanical properties of gases, e.g. pressure and density, and the application of these principles to solve various engineering problems using of compressed gas as the main source of power (Beater, 2007). The compressed gas that is most commonly used is air, and it normally contains energy stored in a potential state. When the compressed air expands, working energy is produced in the form of kinetic energy and pressure (Beater, 2007). 1.1.2 Hardware Pneumatic systems can be broken down into several levels representing the hardware components and the signal flow as shown below (Venkannah, 2006). The major components of a pneumatic system are; Compressor Check valve Accumulator Directional valve Actuator The assembly of a basic pneumatic system is as shown below. Key: A. Air Compressor B. Check Valve C. Accumulator D. Directional Valve E. Actuator The following are discussed below. A. Compressor The air compressor unit is driven by a motor, and it acts as the source of air for the whole system (Dale & Fardo, 2009). ...
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