Pneumatics is defined as the study of gases and air and the relationship between their volume, temperature and pressure (Venkannah, 2006). Pneumatics as a discipline deals with the mechanical properties of gases, e.g. pressure and density, and the application of these principles to solve various engineering problems using of compressed gas as the main source of power (Beater, 2007). The compressed gas that is most commonly used is air, and it normally contains energy stored in a potential state. When the compressed air expands, working energy is produced in the form of kinetic energy and pressure (Beater, 2007). 1.1.2 Hardware Pneumatic systems can be broken down into several levels representing the hardware components and the signal flow as shown below (Venkannah, 2006). The major components of a pneumatic system are; Compressor Check valve Accumulator Directional valve Actuator The assembly of a basic pneumatic system is as shown below. Key: A. Air Compressor B. Check Valve C. Accumulator D. Directional Valve E. Actuator The following are discussed below. A. Compressor The air compressor unit is driven by a motor, and it acts as the source of air for the whole system (Dale & Fardo, 2009). It increases the pressure of air by compressing it so as to reduce its volume. This unit uses electrical power to generate mechanical force through the rotation of a motor. Once the air is compressed, it is stored in a receiving tank. The compressed air is then dispersed to the extra parts of the system at a high pressure when needed (Dale & Fardo, 2009). Pneumatic systems must also be equipped with air processing components that will condition the air before it is used. The conditioning involves filtering, regulating the temperature and lubrication (Dale & Fardo, 2009). These three sub units can be offered as one set known as the FRL Unit (Soundara, 2007). Filter unit It filters any foreign particles that may be contained in the compressed air. However, the size of the particle that can be filtered depends on the type of filter used (Mitchell, 2000). Regulator unit It is used to uphold the desired pressure to the system’s control and consumption unit. Lubricating unit The lubricator supplies the compressed air with a film of oil and ensures that the air carries oil to the interior parts of both the control valves and the cylinder. However, the usage of lubricators is becoming less popular since nowadays manufacturers are making valves that do not require lubrication (Soundara, 2007). The filter and the regulator can be combined and used as a single or as individual units. B. Check valves These are one way valves that allow pressurized air to enter the pneumatic system and at the same time preventing backflow of the pressurized air to the compressor hence preventing loss of pressure. They help keep the pressurized air locked until it is released either manually or electrically after it reaches a certain amount of pressure. C. Accumulator It stores compressed air and prevents any surges that may occur as a result of pressure. It usually has a larger volume than the air compressor. The large volume is of great significance as it helps dampen the pulsations of pressure as well as serve as a reserve to supply both large and brief volumes of air on demand. Accumulators also act as a medium for
1.1.1 Background Pneumatics technology has been of remarkable importance in work-place rationalization as well as automation from the old fashioned manual works to the use of modern machines and robots (Majumdar, 1996). This medium has been made suitable for use in modern manufacturing and production plants by various characteristics of compressed air (Blaine and Binder, 2005)…
An online booking system for parking will make it easy for people to know the exact location of available parking spaces and book them in advance before driving there. This will save people time wasted in the search for available parking spaces and also help in mitigating the issue of unnecessary traffic jams.
Context of the project Usually people waste so much time trying to locate a parking space especially in busy commercial centres such as cities and shopping malls. Besides wasting time this activity can be draining psychologically and can be a demotivator and a prospective client may even drive away when they fail to locate a vacant space (Whapples 2005).
This gives an insight of the relations,patterns and the principles behind certain decisions taken in a practical manner through proper understanding.This system can also be applied in Educational Decision Support System for an easy decision taking procedure in the educational institute and normalizing the procedure for management of institutional admissions.
It can be argued that the entire idea of separation between train operations and track operations was a fundamental misconception. Unlike road or air transport infrastructure, operational considerations, and engineering are intertwined for the rail system.
It can be a retail or virtual bank or ATM’. Availing all functions of a bank with just one click of your mouse is not as easy as it seems. It greatly relies on technology. The finest example of online banking is ATM (Automatic Teller Machine) through which customers can perform various banking transactions with the help of using his or her card which is issued by their respective banks (Center for Financial Training., 2009).
t include reviewing of the past systems and proposal of new ERP systems that meet the changing needs of different companies (Themistocleous, Irani & O’Keefe, 2001). This is because; implementation of different ERP systems depends on the stipulated model of implementation
A dry cleaning company that is online and has a similar system to which the client requires is the all washed up laundry and dry cleaning services. The company, which is located in Belfast and provides
As the report investigates education inequality is attributed to economic disparities that often fall on racial grounds and mostly in the modern conversation concerning educational equity conflates the two. Education inequality between the minority students and the white student continues to dominate social and economic inequalities and differences.
8 pages (2000 words)Literature review
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