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Though this technology is traditionally well established, this technology is still developing day-by-day, as these films are fundamental part for the creation of new equipments in the 21st century, for example super lattice that is made by man or a nanometer materials. Devices and materials that are made up of thin films can be used for decreasing toxic materials as the fixed amount is used just to the thin film layer or surface. The process of thin film saves the consumption of energy in production and these films are believed as a technology that is environmentally pleasant and beneficial in nature material for the coming century. Thin film Materials The deposition of thin films on the surface of substrate can be achieved by using different methods such as chemical vapor evaporation, thermal evaporation, and by using the highly energetic radiations for the evaporation of materials. The process of growth of thin film displays the following characteristics: The beginning of thin films of any materials made by whatsoever method of deposition begins with a process of nucleation followed by levels nucleation and growth. Both of these levels, i.e., nucleation and growth determined by several conditions of deposition, for example rate of growth, growth temperature and the chemistry of substrate. The process of nucleation can be changed considerably by external means, for example by bombardment of ion or electron. The stress of films, its microstructure and related imperfect structure based on the circumstances of deposition during the nucleation level. The deposition conditions controlled the level of crystal and the films orientation. Properties of Thin Films Materials The fundamental properties of film, like crystal orientation and phase, thickness of film, film composition, and its microstructure, are based on the deposition circumstances. Thin films show exceptional properties which cannot be discovered in bulk materials: Through the process of atomic growth unique properties of material are obtained. The orientation, thickness and the different other aspects characterize the effects on size of thin films, as well as quantum size effects (Kumar: 42-52). However, the techniques used for the deposition determine the properties of thin films. There are different processes of deposition of thin films. Chemical vapor evaporation (CVD) is on the deposition method which is defined as the process in which deposition of atoms, molecules or ions through the decomposition of source materials is takes place. Whereas, sputtering is defined as the process of deposition in which the highly energetic radiations are used. In 1850, the process of sputtering was first discovered in gas discharge tube by Grove and Bunsen and in this process the discharged is used for decomposing the cathode electrode material (Wasa, Kitabatake & Adachi: 15-22). From that time, the fundamental understanding regarding the process sputtering has well grown. It was recognized that the decomposition of the cathode substance was made by the bombardment of highly energetic radiation on the surface of cathode. The particles emitted from the surface of cathode are named as the sputtered particles. These particles made up of highly energetic atoms (Wasa, Kitabatake & Adachi: 15-22). The energy of these sputtered partic ...Show more


Course Date The Thin Film Materials Introduction Thin films are manufactured through the process of deposition of a single or more atoms on a surface of a substrate. It can be defined as a material whose dimensions are small and are made through condensation of atomic, ionic or molecular specie of matter separately…
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