Introduction: Polymers or most ordinarily known as plastics is used abundantly in a wide range of applications. In fact, they are seen almost anywhere in our daily lives. Polymers are those substances that are composed of individual monomers cross linked with long chains and bonds. They are composed of a long chain of carbon backbone constituted with other elemental contributions such as O,N,S,F, Si and S. Polymers are organic materials. Generally, their basic properties include lightweight, good insulation properties, ductile, low strength, and good noise and vibration dampers. There are plastics used widely in many industries and can even be seen in everyday lives. Majority of the packaging materials seen today uses polymers with varying densities. Polymer molecular structures are large with complex bonds and chains. There are high density polymers and low density polymers. As per molecular structure, these polymers differ in their chain length, chain branching and the inter-chain bonds (Reusch). As a common misconception, polymers are said to be applied in low temperatures as they are known to degrade immediately with the presence of heat and exposure to high temperature. There is however, a special kind of polymer- the high temperature polymer that exudes exemplary properties greatly superior than ordinary ones. Their applications are slowly introduced in the market and little by little replace the more conventional structural materials. High Temperature Polymers: Definition and Properties Plastics as considered with their physical appearance are not known to be used in high temperatures due to misconception that they easily melt with application of heat. This may be true somehow as most plastics found in nature are easily destructed with high temperature. However, there are some kinds of plastics that are designed differently from all the rest. Indeed, there are plastics and polymers that are resistant with temperatures and they are guaranteed to be of best application when high temperature and heat are concerned. High temperature polymers are those plastics that can withstand temperatures above 135oC. They are known as the ‘commodity’ plastics and at the moment, it has increased in the percentage in the total plastic usage (Performance 1). These are stable plastic materials derived through lengthy and vigorous research works and innovative inventions of brilliant minds that walked through this life that prove that the synthetic chemistry field has reached maturation. Applications of these materials range widely as there are many technologies where these polymers are used. It is important to note that high temperature polymers have properties that bypassed those ordinary ones. Heat transfer is mostly through conduction. Specific heats have a range of 0.7-2.5 kJ/kg-K. Polymer composites on the other hand have variable specific heats depending on the average weight of the components. Thermal conductivity ranges from 0.1 -0.2 W/m-K (Tant et al 4). It is also important to note that the value may differ when there is incorporation of other particles in the materials (5). The maximum tensile stress application can reach from 455 kPa or 1820 kPa (6). Properties of composite polymers that are applicable for high temperatures have higher values as compared to other materials. High temperature
Jumana khouri Oct3rd/2012 High Temperature Polymers Abstract: Polymers or most basically known as plastics are found almost anywhere and everywhere. There are plastics used for various applications. This paper discusses the special type of polymers -the high temperature polymers, its definition, properties, design, structure, tests and the various applications in the many industries today…
This paper discusses supramolecular polymers in general and hydrogen-bonded supramolecular polymers in particular. Molecular recognition, mechanism of polymerization and self-assembly processes of supramolecular polymers are also reviewed. This paper also provides a brief overview of their rheology and applications.
In most cases the repetition is linear and a chain is built up from its links while others the chains are branched or interlinked to form a three dimensional networks (Sinha, 2004, p3). Types of polymers The two main types of polymers are thermoplastic and thermosetting polymers.
The sensors measure the temperature of the surrounding and send it after every ten minutes to a computer located at a meteorological department.In this project, a metrological data recording center requires the collection of data from ten different towns located within a given country.
Variety of facets conveys the necessary information about elements as well as events in concentrated and successful ways. Artifact samples present (State Aeronautics and Space Supervision 2001:30-27) appealing element characteristics yet they also incorporate information that is not aligned with to the elements, thus operational and conceived qualities.
Starch is used for long term energy storage only in plants. Starch molecules are helical and may be either branched or unbranched. Animals hydrolyze this polymer to obtain glucose. Glycogen has the same kind of bond between monomers as starch , but it is highly branched.
This helps in generating torque on the particles that have been trapped into the mechanism. Using this process, we are able to achieve analysis of trap stiffness among the particles of the sample, the interaction
Optical manipulation: This process involves the use of optical tweezers and aims to measure the interaction among light matters. The configuration of the beam laser enables the application of multiple trap positions through techniques such as beam splitting, use of diffractive circularly polarized light and Laguerre Gaussian beams.
According to the author of the text, the temperature input significantly affects the mean output of the amylase hydrolysis laboratory experiments because temperature affects the number of enzyme collisions. In addition, trend analysis indicates that as the temperature increases at zero time period, the mean output increases.
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